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Meeting Future Challenges in Petroleum industry
The oil industry has successfully dealt with many challenges in the past; through technology development, extended reach, innovative ways of doing business and by continuously creating and developing new opportunities. Today, in a more global and interconnected world the challenges continue, some new, others the result of past actions and behaviors, but all necessitating innovative thinking, collaboration, timely adaptation and swift action.
Technology Changes Everything
An explosion in new technology — significantly better computer-aided geologic modeling and major advances in drilling, particularly through the advent of horizontal drilling — during the past ten years has changed the landscape at Bakken and elsewhere. Already, one field in the formation, Montana’s Elm Coulee, which was only discovered in 2000, has produced about 65 million barrels of crude, pushing the total amount of oil pumped from the formation to more than 105 million barrels by year-end 2007.
Time for a New Approach
Industry critics frequently discount these advances, arguing that this one field won’t solve the U.S.’s oil needs or that particular discovery won’t add much to the nation’s proved reserves. But to Red Cavaney, API’s outgoing president and chief executive officer, that totally misses the point. In a speech this summer, Cavaney, who will be stepping down November 1, stated: “All too often, we hear the argument that ‘we cannot drill our way out of our current energy problems.’ It is said that opening ANWR [the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska] would produce only a six-month supply of oil — even though the USGS’s mean estimate is that it holds 7.7 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil. Such a claim uses faulty logic, like telling a farmer: ‘You cannot plant your 400 acres because the crops you grow would not meet the total food crop needs of our nation this year.’ Oil, like a food crop or any other commodity, helps meet future demand through the incremental addition of new volumes from multiple sources.
“Similarly, it is said that the OCS [Outer Continental Shelf] contains only a two-and-a-half-year supply of crude oil. In fact, the OCS could provide an additional 1 million barrels per day in crude oil production for 50 years. What’s missed here is that energy supply is cumulative. Seemingly marginal increments add to that supply — and, taken together, can add up to the supply needed to meet demand. So all additions to supply are important.”
IBM solutions for intelligent oil fields — a successful combination of Technology and integration
End-to-end technology and service capabilities — together with deep industry experience, world-class hardware and software and a global presence — make IBM highly qualified to deliver solutions that are designed to enable oil and gas companies to evaluate and execute drill programs to facilitate better reservoir management, optimize profits from producing assets and better leverage their existing workforce.
Penne Arrabiata (Italian)
Chilli Tofu (Chinese)
Mix refined flour with 5 tbsps of water and knead into a soft dough. Cover with a damp cloth and set aside for15 minutes.
Heat oil in a non stick wok. Add spring onions, ginger and green chilli and sauté. And mushrooms, beans, carrot, spring onion greens, bean sprouts, salt, pepper powder, soy sauce and mix well.
Mix cornflour in ¼ cup water and add. Cook till thick, take the wok off the heat and cool. Divide the dough into small balls. Roll in dry flour and roll into small puris keeping the edges thin and the centre thick. Place a portion of stuffing in the centre, fold one end over the other and give it a half moon shape. For another gather the edges and seal together. Make another momo in triangle shape.
Heat water in a deep non stick pan. Line a bamboo basket with cabbage leaves. apply a little sesame oil on the momos and place them over the cabbage leaves. Cover and place the basket over the hot water, cover the pan and steam for 8-10 minutes or till done. Uncover the pan, take the basket out and open it. Serve the momos hot.
Ginger Juice Shooter
City Pick – Vienna , Austria
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.757 million (2.4 million within the metropolitan area, more than 20% of Austria's population), and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, and fifth globally (out of 256 cities) in the 2011 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering 3 areas: culture, infrastructure and markets. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is often used as a case study by urban planners.
Geography and climate
Culture-Music, theatre and opera
Jaguar F-type , It’s Here
British luxury car giant, Jaguar is now all set to launch the new F-Type Sports car in India sometime in July. Jaguar F-Type is likely to come up with two engine options- a V6 S and the V8 S. The V6 S is a 3.0-litre supercharged power train, capable of churning out the maximum power output of 375bhp. While the V8 S is a 5.0-litre supercharged petrol mill that produces 490bhp. Both the engines will be mated to an eight-speed transmission gearbox. Jaguar F-Type is the come back car for Jaguar in Sports car segment, as the E-type was the last car rolled out from the factory 38 years ago.
Tata Motors owned Jaguar Land Rover has introduced the all new Jaguar F Type sports car in India with a price starting at Rs. 1.37 Crore (ex showroom price Mumbai). This is the two door convertible, which was first unveiled at the 2012 Paris Motors show. It is the spiritual successor of the iconic Jaguar E type and it is made available in two variants with code name Jaguar F Type V6 S and V8 S. This sports car has come up with two engine options such as 3.0-litre V6 supercharged petrol and a massive 5.0-litre V8 supercharged petrol beast. This new sports car lineup from JLR has got a unique body panel and exterior design that can simply grab the attention in the first look. These two variants have been introduced with an advanced “Quickshift Transmission”, which comes in with 8-speed gear box that ensures smooth performance by responding instantaneously. This Quickshift Transmission gearbox functions with intelligent and adaptive software technology that optimizes fuel economy and outright performance of the engine. This new sports car comes with a lightweight aluminum body, which is strong and rigid that redefines high power to weight and torque to weight ratios. It is perhaps an ideal platform for this convertible sports car and for the way it performs. This is the sports car that outperforms any other sports car of its class with advanced mechanism and functionality. The company has taken utmost care about the body design of this convertible sports car to ensure low lift levels and for excellent stability at high speed. This sports car comes with active aerodynamics that allows it to initiates auto deploy at 100 Kmph and reduces lift by up to 120 Kgs. On the other hand, it comes with an adaptive dynamics that instinctively modifies the response of this sports car to the road conditions and driver inputs.
This will certainly enhance the experience by providing ultimate driving dynamics. There are several other assistance and reassurance aspects incorporated to this high end sports car that provides information and control, which helps the driver to focus on the drive. These assistance functions include cruise control with automatic speed limiter and blind spot monitoring that are crafted to alert the driver about the presence of any car in adjacent lanes. On the other hand reverse traffic detection can provide warnings of other vehicles in reversing path. This truly represents the pinnacle of the hard work and innovations made by the engineers at the JLR.
Myths about Cancer
A new study from American Cancer Society researchers finds a surprising number of People believe scientifically unsubstantiated claims concerning cancer, and that population segments suffering the greatest burden of cancer are the most likely to be misinformed. To set the record straight. Cancer creates a lot of fear, questions, and controversy. We're here to help dispel some of the myths that have been created, and to help you do the most that you can to reduce your risk of cancer.
MYTH: You don’t need to worry about cancer if no one in your family has had it.
Only 5% to 10% of cancers are hereditary (passed down by a family member). The majority of cancers are caused by genetic changes that occur throughout a person’s lifetime. These changes, or mutations, are caused by factors such as tobacco use, too much ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, and exposure to certain chemicals. However, the likelihood that a single mutation will cause cancer is small. That is one reason why cancer is more common in older people—a number of mutations have had the chance to build up throughout their life. Learn more about risk factors and prevention
MYTH: If you have a family history of cancer, you will get it too; there’s nothing you can do about it.
Although having a family history of cancer increases your risk of developing the disease, it is not a definite prediction of your future health. In fact, an estimated 4 out of 10 cancers can be prevented by making simple lifestyle changes, such as eating a balanced diet, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising, limiting alcoholic beverages, and avoiding tobacco products. Additionally, doctors may recommend that some people who have inherited a genetic mutation that puts them at high risk for cancer have surgery or take medication, known as prophylactic treatment, to further reduce the chance that cancer will develop. Learn more about cancer genetics and hereditary cancer-related syndromes.
MYTH: Hair dyes and antiperspirants can cause cancer.
To date, there is no conclusive scientific evidence that these items increase the risk of developing cancer. Some studies have suggested that hair dyes used before 1980 could be linked to an increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but the unsafe chemicals have since been removed from hair dye products. There is limited and inconsistent evidence that hair dye can increase the risk of other types of cancer. Additionally, there is some evidence that the skin may absorb the aluminum-based compounds that act as the active ingredient in antiperspirants. These compounds are known to cause hormonal changes, which has led some to believe that antiperspirants could contribute to the development of breast cancer. However, there is no consistent evidence to support this claim.
MYTH: Positive thinking will cure cancer.
Although a positive attitude may improve your quality of life during cancer treatment, there is no scientific evidence that it can cure cancer. Placing such importance on attitude may lead to unnecessary guilt and disappointment if, for reasons beyond your control, your health does not improve.
MYTH: Cancer loves sugar.
Many people with cancer wonder if they should stop eating sugar because they have heard sugar feeds cancer growth. However, there is no conclusive evidence that proves eating sugar will make cancer grow and spread more quickly. All cells in the body, both healthy cells and cancer cells, depend on sugar (glucose) to grow and function. However, providing cancer cells with sugar won't speed up their growth, just as cutting out sugar completely won’t slow down their growth. This doesn’t mean you should eat a high sugar diet, though. Consuming too many calories from sugar has been linked to weight gain, obesity, and diabetes, which increase the risk of developing cancer and other diseases. Learn more about the relationship between diet and cancer.
MYTH: If you are diagnosed with cancer, you will probably die.
Cancer is not a death sentence. Advances in cancer detection and treatment have increased survival rates for most common types of cancer. In fact, more than 60% of people with cancer survive five years or more after their initial diagnosis. Learn more about cancer survivorship.
MYTH: Cancer is always painful.
Although pain is one of the most common side effects of cancer and its treatment, up to 95% of cancer pain can be successfully treated with medications and other pain management techniques. However, in order to benefit from these pain-relief strategies, you must share your symptoms with a member of your health care team. Learn more about managing and treating cancer pain.
MYTH: Some people are too old for cancer treatment.
There is no age limit for cancer treatment. People with cancer should receive the treatment that is best suited to their condition, regardless of age. Many older patients respond as well to cancer treatments as younger patients. However, some older adults may have other illnesses that limit the use of specific treatments, so older adults with cancer are encouraged to talk with their doctor about the best approach for managing their disease. Read more about cancer treatment for older adults.
MYTH: People being treated for cancer can’t stay at home, work, or participate in their usual activities.
Most people living with cancer are treated in their home community on an outpatient basis (with periodic appointments at a hospital or clinic rather than an overnight stay at a hospital) and often continue with some or all of their day-to-day activities. Many people can work part-time or full-time, care for their children, and attend social activities, despite undergoing cancer treatment.
MYTH: Everyone with cancer has to be treated.
If a cancer is found at an early stage, is growing slowly, and your doctor feels treating the cancer would cause more discomfort than the disease, your doctor may recommend active surveillance (also known as watchful waiting). During active surveillance, the cancer is monitored closely. If it starts growing or begins causing symptoms, starting treatment is usually an option.
In other situations, such as advanced cancer, emotional, social, and spiritual factors may play as much of a role as physical concerns when making treatment decisions. Ultimately it is up to the patient to decide whether he or she wants to be treated. However, these decisions should be made after talking with a doctor about the potential risks and benefits of each treatment option. Even if a person decides not to have disease-directed treatment, the health care team can still provide palliative/supportive care to help reduce symptoms, improve quality of life, and support the patient and his or her family.
MYTH: If I’m not offered all of the tests, procedures, and treatments available, I am not getting the best cancer care.
Not every test, treatment, or procedure is right for every person. You and your doctor should discuss which ones will increase your chance of recovering and help you maintain the best quality of life and which ones could increase your risk of side effects and lead to unnecessary costs. If you decide after this discussion that you need more information before making treatment decisions, it may be helpful to seek a second opinion.
This section specifies the various information that every motor driver must know.l
Importance of a Driving License?
A Driving Licence is an official document certifying that the holder is suitably qualified to drive a motor vehicle or vehicles. Under the provisions of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 in India, no person can drive a motor vehicle in any public place unless he holds a valid Driving Licence issued to him, authorising him to drive a vehicle of that particular category.
In India, two kinds of Driving Licences are issued: Learner’s Licence and Permanent Licence. Learner’s Licence is valid only for six months. Permanent Licence can be availed only after the expiry of one month from the date of issuance of the Learner’s Licence.
Think before you Drink
Drunken driving is an offence in India, like many other countries worldwide. The object of making it an offence under law is to improve road safety by seeking to bring down the number of accidents and fatalities caused by driver’s fault. We really can’t blame the authorities for thinking that, what with daily news of some drunken late-night-partygoer mowing down footpath dwellers. With statistics saying that almost 78% of all road accidents in India are caused due to driver’s fault , and of those legislators are only emboldened in their views.
Punishment for Drinking and Driving
Now, it is a well-known fact that alcohol may impair brain-body co-ordination, blunt perception and increase reaction time. The degree of these affects varies with alcohol level in blood (i.e. Blood Alcohol Content/Concentration, ‘B.A.C.’). Under Section 185 of Indian Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, anything more than 30 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of blood (.03% of B.A.C.) for the first time would invite penalty in the form of imprisonment for a term upto 6 months or with fine upto Rs. 2000 or both. Repeated offenders are punishable with imprisonment for a term upto 2 years or with fine upto Rs.3000/- or with both.
Any police officer who is in uniform can stop the driver of a vehicle and ask him to take the breath test to test the alcohol content in his body. Usually, this sobriety check is done using breath analyzers and if need be, the police officer can ask the suspect to a nearby place to conduct breath and blood tests. If in the test, it is found that B.A.C. is at a prohibited level, police officer has the power to arrest the suspect there and then, without any arrest warrant. Arrest can also be made if the suspect attempts to resist the breath test.
The safety check provided to the suspect is that only a police officer in uniform can ask him to stop while he is driving or about to drive in a public place and the breath test has to be conducted as soon as is reasonably possible. So, you have all the freedom that you want to drive ‘under the influence’ as long as you do it in your own garden! Also, if you are driving in high spirits and get caught, the only chance to evade arrest (no, I am not talking about bribing) is if you end up in the hospital because a suspect who is an indoor patient at a hospital is exempted from being arrested.
What to do in case of a Road Accident?
Car accidents can happen when you least expect it, but being calm and taking smart steps can help you get onto the road to recovery much sooner.
Listed are 9 essential steps to take after a car accident
Location and Contact person: Dial 100/103 to get in touch with the closest police station
“Did you know ”the 10 inventions that changed the world?
If you think that the world's greatest inventions came from the fevered minds of solitary geniuses, think again. As you scan this list of the 10 inventions that changed the world, note how many of them perfected workable designs.
The Internet, a network of computers covering the entire planet, allows people to access almost any information located anywhere in the world at any time. Its effects on business, communication, economy, entertainment and even politics are profound. The Internet may not have changed the world as much as the plow, but it's probably on par with the steam engine or automobile.
DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), the research and development arm of the U.S. military, created ARPANET in the late 1960s. This network of computer-to-computer connections was intended for military and academic research. Other computer networks began to cross the globe in the next few years, and by the late 1970s computer scientists had created a single protocol, TCP/IP, that would allow computers on any network to communicate with computers on other networks. This was, essentially, the birth of the Internet, but it took 10 or so years for various other networks in the world to adopt the new protocol, making the Internet truly global.
The Internet is such a powerful invention that we've probably only begun to see the effects it will have on the world. The ability to diffuse and recombine information with such efficiency could accelerate the rate at which further world-changing inventions are created. At the same time, some fear that our ability to communicate, work, play and do business via the Internet breaks down our ties to local communities and causes us to become socially isolated. Like any invention, the good or ill it accomplishes will come from how we choose to use it.
A computer is a machine that takes information in, is able to manipulate it in some way, and outputs new information. There is no single inventor of the modern computer, although the ideas of British mathematician Alan Turing are considered eminently influential in the field of computing. Mechanical computing devices were in existence in the 1800s (there were even rare devices that could be considered computers in ancient eras), but electronic computers were invented in the 20th century.
Computers are able to make complicated mathematical calculations at an incredible rate of speed. When they operate under the instructions of skilled programmers, computers can accomplish amazing feats. Some high-performance military aircraft wouldn't be able to fly without constant computerized adjustments to flight control surfaces. Computers performed the sequencing of the human genome, let us put spacecraft into orbit, control medical testing equipment, and create the complex visual imagery used in films and video games.
If we only examine these grandiose uses of computers, we overlook how much we rely on them from day to day. Computers let us store vast amounts of information and retrieve a given piece of it almost instantly. Many of the things we take for granted in the world wouldn't function without computers, from cars to power plants to phones.
3.A Light Bulb
If there's a common theme to this list, it's that no major invention came from a single stroke of genius from a single inventor. Every invention is built by incrementally improving earlier designs, and the person usually associated with an invention is the first person to make it commercially viable. Such is the case with the light bulb. We immediately think of Thomas Edison as the electric light bulb's inventor, but dozens of people were working on similar ideas in the 1870s, when Edison developed his incandescent bulb. Joseph Swan did similar work in Britain at the time, and eventually the two merged their ideas into a single company, Ediswan.
The bulb itself works by transmitting electricity through a wire with high resistance known as a filament. The waste energy created by the resistance is expelled as heat and light. The glass bulb encases the filament in a vacuum or in inert gas, preventing combustion.
You might think the light bulb changed the world by allowing people to work at night or in dark places (it did, to some extent), but we already had relatively cheap and efficient gas lamps and other light sources at the time. It was actually the infrastructure that was built to provide electricity to every home and business that changed the world. Today, our world is filled with powered devices than we can plug in pretty much anywhere. We have the light bulb to thank for it.
If the steam engine mobilized industry, the automobile mobilized people. While ideas for personal vehicles had been around for years, Karl Benz's 1885 Motorwagen, powered by an internal combustion engine of his own design, is widely considered the first automobile. Henry Ford's improvements in the production process -- and effective marketing -- brought the price and the desire for owning an auto into the reach of most Americans. Europe soon followed.
The automobile's effect on commerce, society and culture is hard to overestimate. Most of us can jump in our car and go wherever we want whenever we want, effectively expanding the size of any community to the distance we're willing to drive to shop or visit friends. Our cities are largely designed and built around automobile access, with paved roads and parking lots taking up huge amounts of space and a big chunk of our governments' budgets. The auto industry has fueled enormous economic growth worldwide, but it's also generated a lot of pollution.
Prior to the invention of the steam engine, most products were made by hand. Water wheels and draft animals provided the only 'industrial' power available, which clearly had its limits. The Industrial Revolution, which is perhaps the greatest change over the shortest period of time in the history of civilization, was carried forward by the steam engine.
The concept of using steam to power machines had been around for thousands of years, but Thomas Newcomen's creation in 1712 was the first to harness that power for useful work (pumping water out of mines, for the most part). In 1769, James Watt modified a Newcomen engine by adding a separate condenser, which vastly increased the steam engine's power and made it a far more practical way to do work. He also developed a way for the engine to produce rotary motion, which may be just as important as the efficiency gains. Thus, Watt is often considered the inventor of the steam engine.
Newcomen's and Watt's engines actually used the vacuum of condensing steam to drive the pistons, not the pressure of steam expansion. This made the engines bulky. It was the high-pressure steam engine developed by Richard Trevithick and others that allowed for steam engines small enough to power a train. Not only did steam engines power factories that made the rapid production of goods possible, they powered the trains and steamships that carried those goods across the globe.
While the steam engine has been eclipsed by electric and internal combustion engines in the areas of transport and factory power, they're still incredibly important. Most power plants in the world actually generate electricity using steam turbines, whether the steam is heated by burning coal, natural gas or a nuclear reactor.
Maybe it's cheating to lump the telegraph, telephone, radio and television into one 'invention,' but the development of communication technology has been a continuum of increased utility and flexibility since Samuel Morse invented the electric telegraph in 1836 (building on the prior work of others, of course). The telephone simply refined the idea by allowing actual voice communications to be sent over copper wires, instead of just beeps that spelled out the plain text in Morse code. These communication methods were point-to-point, and required an extensive infrastructure of wires to function
Transmitting signals wirelessly using electromagnetic waves was a concept worked on by many inventors around the world, but Guglielmo Marconi and Nikola Tesla popularized it in the early 20th century. Eventually, sound could be transmitted wirelessly, while engineers gradually perfected the transmission of images. Radio and television were new landmarks in communications because they allowed a single broadcaster to send messages to thousands or even millions of recipients as long as they were equipped with receivers.
These developments in communications technology effectively shrank the world. In the span of about 120 years, we went from a world where it might take weeks to hear news from across the country to one where we can watch events occurring on the other side of the globe as they happen. The advent of mass communications put more information within our grasp and altered how we interact with each other.
Refrigerators cool things down by taking advantage of the way substances absorb and unload heat as their pressure points and phases of matter change (usually from gas to liquid and back). It's difficult to pinpoint a single inventor of the refrigerator, because the concept was widely known and gradually improved over the course of about 200 years. Some credit Oliver Evans' 1805 unproduced design of a vapor-compression unit, while others point to Carl von Linde's 1876 design as the actual precursor of the modern refrigerator in your kitchen. Dozens of inventors, including Albert Einstein, would refine or improve refrigerator designs over the decades.
In the early 20th century, harvested natural ice was still common, but large industries such as breweries were beginning to use ice-making machines. Harvested ice for industrial use was rare by World War I. However, it wasn't until the development of safer refrigerant chemicals in the 1920s that home refrigerators became the norm.
The ability to keep food cold for prolonged periods (and even during shipping, once refrigerated trucks were developed) drastically changed the food production industry and the eating habits of people around the world. Now, we have easy access to fresh meats and dairy products even in the hottest summer months, and we're no longer tied to the expense of harvesting and shipping natural ice -- which never could have kept pace with the world's growing population in any case
Like many of the inventions on this list, the man we believe invented the printing press (Johann Gutenberg in the 1430s) actually improved on pre-existing technologies and made them useful and efficient enough to become popular. The world already had paper and block printing -- the Chinese had them as early as the 11th century -- but the complexity of their language limited popularity. Marco Polo brought the idea to Europe in 1295.
Gutenberg combined the idea of block printing with a screw press (used for olive oil and wine production). He also developed metal printing blocks that were far more durable and easier to make than the hand-carved wooden letters in use previously. Finally, his advances in ink and paper production helped revolutionize the whole process of mass printing.
The printing press allowed enormous quantities of information to be recorded and spread throughout the world. Books had previously been items only the extremely rich could afford, but mass production brought the price down tremendously. The printing press is probably responsible for many other inventions, but in a more subtle way than the wheel. The diffusion of knowledge it created gave billions of humans the education they needed to create their own inventions in the centuries since.
The wheel is another invention so ancient that we have no way of knowing who first developed it. The oldest wheel and axle mechanism we've found was near Ljubljana, Slovenia, and dates to roughly 3100 B.C.
The wheel made the transportation of goods much faster and more efficient, especially when affixed to horse-drawn chariots and carts. However, if it had been used only for transportation, the wheel wouldn't have been as much of a world-changer as it was. In fact, a lack of quality roads limited its usefulness in this regard for thousands of years.
A wheel can be used for a lot of things other than sticking them on a cart to carry grain, though. Tens of thousands of other inventions require wheels to function, from water wheels that power mills to gears and cogs that allowed even ancient cultures to create complex machines. Cranks and pulleys need wheels to work. A huge amount of modern technology still depends on the wheel, like centrifuges used in chemistry and medical research, electric motors and combustion engines, jet engines, power plants and countless others.
Compared to some of the gleaming, electronic inventions that fill our lives today, the plow doesn't seem very exciting. It's a simple cutting tool used to carve a furrow into the soil, churning it up to expose nutrients and prepare it for planting. Yet the plow is probably the one invention that made all others possible.
No one knows who invented the plow, or exactly when it came to be. It probably developed independently in a number of regions, and there is evidence of its use in prehistoric eras. Prior to the plow, humans were subsistence farmers or hunter/gatherers. Their lives were devoted solely to finding enough food to survive from one season to the next. Growing food added some stability to life, but doing it by hand was labor intensive and took a long time. The plow changed all that.
Plows made the work easier and faster. Improvements in the plow's design made farming so efficient that people could harvest far more food than they needed to survive. They could trade the surplus for goods or services. And if you could get food by trading, then you could devote your day-to-day existence to something other than growing food, such as producing the goods and services that were suddenly in demand.
The ability to trade and store materials drove the invention of written language, number systems, fortifications and militaries. As populations gathered to engage in these activities, cities grew. It's not a stretch to say that the plow is responsible for the creation of human civilization.