Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems
at the molecular scale.

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What is Nanotechnology?
A basic definition: Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers
both current work and concepts that are more advanced.
In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.

The Meaning of Nanotechnology
When K. Eric Drexler popularized the word 'nanotechnology' in the 1980's, he was talking about building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers wide—motors, robot arms, and even whole computers, far smaller than a cell. Drexler spent the next ten years describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of science fiction. Meanwhile, mundane technology was developing the ability to build simple structures on a molecular scale. As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of the word shifted to encompass the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology. The U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative was created to fund this kind of nanotech: their definition includes anything smaller than 100 nanometers with novel properties.

Much of the work being done today that carries the name 'nanotechnology' is not nanotechnology in the original meaning of the word. Nanotechnology, in its traditional sense, means building things from the bottom up, with atomic precision. This theoretical capability was envisioned as early as 1959 by the renowned physicist Richard Feynman.

I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each other, which are manufacturing simultaneously. . . The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big. — Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize winner in physics.

How Nanotechnology Works

There's an unprecedented multidisciplinary convergence of scientists dedicated to the study of a world so small, we can't see it -- even with a light microscope. That world is the field of nanotechnology, the realm of atoms and nanostructures. Nanotechnology is so new; no one is really sure what will come of it. Even so, predictions range from the ability to reproduce things like diamonds and food to the world being devoured by self-replicating nanorobots.

In order to understand the unusual world of nanotechnology, we need to get an idea of the units of measure involved. A centimeter is one-hundredth of a meter, a millimeter is one-thousandth of a meter, and a micrometer is one-millionth of a meter, but all of these are still huge compared to the nanoscale. A nanometer (nm) is one-billionth of a meter, smaller than the wavelength of visible light and a hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair

As small as a nanometer is, it's still large compared to the atomic scale. An atom has a diameter of about 0.1 nm. An atom's nucleus is much smaller -- about 0.00001 nm. Atoms are the building blocks for all matter in our universe. You and everything around you are made of atoms. Nature has perfected the science of manufacturing matter molecularly. For instance, our bodies are assembled in a specific manner from millions of living cells. Cells are nature's nanomachines. At the atomic scale, elements are at their most basic level. On the nanoscale, we can potentially put these atoms together to make almost anything.

Four Generations

Mihail (Mike) Roco of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative has described four generations of nanotechnology development (Refer to the chart below). The current era, as Roco depicts it, is that of passive nanostructures, materials designed to perform one task. The second phase, which we are just entering, introduces active nanostructures for multitasking; for example, actuators, drug delivery devices, and sensors. The third generation is expected to begin emerging around 2010 and will feature nanosystems with thousands of interacting components. A few years after that, the first integrated nanosystems, functioning (according to Roco) much like a mammalian cell with hierarchical systems within systems, are expected to be developed.

Some experts may still insist that nanotechnology can refer to measurement or visualization at the scale of 1-100 nanometers, but a consensus seems to be forming around the idea (put forward by the NNI's Mike Roco) that control and restructuring of matter at the nanoscale is a necessary element. CRN's definition is a bit more precise than that, but as work progresses through the four generations of nanotechnology leading up to molecular nanosystems, which will include molecular manufacturing, we think it will become increasingly obvious that "engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale" is what nanotech is really all about.

Conflicting Definitions
Unfortunately, conflicting definitions of nanotechnology and blurry distinctions between significantly different fields have complicated the effort to understand the differences and develop sensible, effective policy.

General-Purpose Technology
Nanotechnology is sometimes referred to as a general-purpose technology. That's because in its advanced form it will have significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. It will offer better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer, and smarter products for the home, for communications, for medicine, for transportation, for agriculture, and for industry in general.

Dual-Use Technology
Like electricity or computers before it, nanotech will offer greatly improved efficiency in almost every facet of life. But as a general-purpose technology, it will be dual-use, meaning it will have many commercial uses and it also will have many military uses—making far more powerful weapons and tools of surveillance. Thus it represents not only wonderful benefits for humanity, but also grave risks.

A key understanding of nanotechnology is that it offers not just better products, but a vastly improved manufacturing process. A computer can make copies of data files—essentially as many copies as you want at little or no cost. It may be only a matter of time until the building of products becomes as cheap as the copying of files. That's the real meaning of nanotechnology, and why it is sometimes seen as "the next industrial revolution."

Exponential Proliferation
Nanotechnology not only will allow making many high-quality products at very low cost, but it will allow making new nanofactories at the same low cost and at the same rapid speed. This unique (outside of biology, that is) ability to reproduce its own means of production is why nanotech is said to be an exponential technology. It represents a manufacturing system that will be able to make more manufacturing systems—factories that can build factories—rapidly, cheaply, and cleanly. The means of production will be able to reproduce exponentially, so in just a few weeks a few nanofactories conceivably could become billions. It is a revolutionary, transformative, powerful, and potentially very dangerous—or beneficial—technology.

How soon will all this come about? Conservative estimates usually say 20 to 30 years from now, or even much later than that. However, CRN is concerned that it may occur sooner, quite possibly within the next decade. This is because of the rapid progress being made in enabling technologies, such as optics, nanolithography, mechanochemistry and 3D prototyping. If it does arrive that soon, we may not be adequately prepared, and the consequences could be severe.

Frequently Asked Questions 

Q: What are the expected benefits of nanotechnologies for consumers and society as a whole?
A: The applications of nanotechnologies are expected to bring everyday benefits for consumers through new products, novel health applications and reduced environmental impacts. Applications already appearing include improved materials and surfaces, information and communication technologies, medical diagnostics, therapeutic tools, textiles, household products and so forth.

Q: Why are nanotechnologies important for the economy, industry and job creation?
A: Nanotechnologies are pervasive enabling technologies with far-reaching effects. They are expected to help address many problems facing today's society. They are also expected to provide a new competitive edge to European industry and to the European economy as a whole, and to contribute to job creation. Market analysts foresee a world market for nanotechnologies worth EUR 750-2000 billion by 2015, and estimate that 10 million nano-related jobs will be created by 2014, i.e. 10% of all manufacturing jobs world-wide. The Commission expects nanotechnologies to contribute directly to the revised Lisbon Strategy, including to the competitiveness of the European industry.

Q: What are the expected benefits of nanotechnologies for the environment?
A: Nanosciences and nanotechnologies can contribute to a more sustainable use of natural resources, due to processing and production systems that use energy and raw materials more efficiently. Substitution of certain environmentally harmful materials (e.g. lubricants) could be possible. The development of nanotechnology-based remediation methods may in the future help clean up environmental damage and pollution. Research in energy efficiency, production and storage (e.g. through novel catalysts and more efficient solar panels), lightweight materials and modern insulation construction materials may likewise contribute to climate change mitigation.

Q: What are the potential risks of nanomaterials to human health and the environment?
A: Because nanomaterials exhibit novel properties, they may expose humans and the environment to new risks. To identify the potential risks created by nanomaterials in specific applications, the Commission is relying on advice from the Scientific Committees and Panels of the European Community.

In its 2006 opinion, the Scientific Committee for Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) stated that although the existing toxicological and ecotoxicological methods are appropriate to assess many of the hazards associated with the products and processes involving nanoparticles, they may not be sufficient to address all the hazards. Current risk assessment procedures therefore need to be modified to take account of nanoparticles. The SCENIHR also identified the main gaps in the knowledge necessary for risk assessment.

Advantages on NanoTechnology:
NanoTechnology lets us make almost every manufactured product faster, lighter, stronger, smarter, safer and cleaner, and even more presice. We can already see many of the possibilities as these few examples illustrate.

New products that solve new problems in new ways are more difficult to foresee, yet their impact is likely to be even greater. In not many years, we are going to be able to manufacture products with almost every atom in its right place, without much of a big cost. (As for example, continue the revolution form computer hardware, to gates and wires; very light and strong materials, as diamonds of the precise shape we want, being less heavier than a piece of steel of the same length; cars that weight 50 kg, full sized sofas that could be picked up with one hand; and surgical instruments as to operate cells and even molecules!)

Disadvantages on NanoTechnology:

  • The biggest disadvantage is that NanoTechnology is actually VERY expensive, so not everyone can buy it or afford it.
  • The manufacturing cost is very high because the product is fully made of molecules.
  • The initial investment is very high. If a failure of product means there is lot of loss. So it takes full of risk.
  • The damage of the Nanotechnology product may cause not recover the original product. There is a maintenance cost is high.

Many more things will be developed, but this will take a while. While some advances are made through serendipitous accidents or a flash of insight, others require more work. It seems unlikely that a scientist would forget to turn off the Bunsen burner in his lab one afternoon and return to find he’d accidentally made a Space Shuttle.

Like the first human landing on the moon, the Manhattan project, or the development of the modern computer, the development of molecular manufacturing will require the coordinated efforts of many people for many years. How long will it take? A lot depends on when we start.

  • 1 tin condensed milk
  • 1 cup dry coconut powder
  • 1/4 cup cocoa powder
  • 1/2 cup milk powder
  • 3 tbsp. Butter
  • 1tbsp. plain flour
  • 4-5 drops vanilla essence
  • Empty condensed milk into two pan, half in each.
  • Add 3/4 coconut powder to one.
  • Add cocoa, milk powder, plainflour to the other.
  • Add half butter to each pan.
  • Add 2 drops essence in each.
  • Mix contents of each pan well.
  • First place cocoa mixture pan to heat.
  • Stir continuously with spatula till a soft lump forms and leaves sides of pan.
  • Take off fire. Cool a little.
  • Roll carefully, on a large sheet of butterpaper.
  • Dust with icing sugar to help rolling if required.
  • Put second pan to cook, similarly.
  • When mixture is a soft lump, and leaves side of pan, take off fire.
  • Cool a little, roll similarly.
  • Invert with butter paper over cocoa layer, so both layers are one on top of the other.
  • Carefully peel off upper paper.
  • Make a tight roll of both, to form a swissroll.
  • Spread remaining coconut powder on a dry sheet of butterpaper.
  • Cover roll with coconut by rolling it on spread coconut powder.
  • Chill roll for 3-4 hours, cut into thin half inch slices.
  • Store in airtight container, refrigerate.
Recipe taken from :
These are the best sugar cookies I have ever found. They're very buttery and almost flakey on the outer edge, and nice and soft in the middle. You can't eat just one!
  • 1 cup sugar
  • 2 sticks butter (softened)
  • 1 cup powdered sugar
  • 2 eggs
  • 1 cup oil (I use canola, but whatever)
  • 1 Tsp. vanilla
  • 4 cups and 2 Tbsp. flour
  • 1 Tsp. baking soda
  • 1 Tsp. Cream of tartar
  • Cream sugar and butter.
  • Add powdered sugar, eggs, oil, and vanilla and then beat.
  • Mix dry ingredients together, add to previous mixture.
  • Roll into balls, then roll balls into sugar.
  • Flatten with glass dipped in sugar.
  • Bake at 350F for 10 minutes.
Recipe taken from :

Preparation time : - 25 minutes     Serves : - 2

  • 4 Medium Sized Pieces Of Chicken
  • 4 Green Chillies
  • 4 Garlic Flakes
  • ½ Cup Freshly Chopped Coriander Leaves
  • 1 Cardamom, 2 Cloves
  • 1 Inch Cinnamon
  • ½ Inch Ginger
  • 1 Small Onion
  • ½ Teaspoon Cumin Seeds
  • ½ Teaspoon Pepper Corns
  • ½ Tablespoon Soya Bean Sauce
  • 1 Tablespoon Oil And Salt To Taste
  • Take the chicken and make slits on all side.
  • Put it in a bib bowl and pour the Soya sauce and salt. Mix it up and let it marinate for two hours.
  • Cut the onion and green chillies and put in into a blender.
  • Now add the garlic flakes, coriander leaves, cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, ginger, cumin seeds, pepper corns and blend it till it becomes a fine paste.
  • Now take a frying pan and pour the oil and bring to heat.
  • When the oil is nice and hot add the paste and sauté.
  • Simmer and sauté till the raw smell of the paste leaves.
  • After about three minutes an aroma will begin to rise.
  • Now add the chicken pieces and salt.
  • Add very little water and mix it well.
  • Then cover the pan with a lid, simmer and cook for about 20 minutes.
  • Remove from flame and serve with rice.
Recipe taken from :
Preparation time :- 15 minutes     Serves : - 2
  • 1 cup cooked chicken
  • 1 tomato. 1 onion,
  • 2 eggs,
  • 1 teaspoon ginger garlic paste,
  • 1 teaspoon garam masala,
  • few tortillas,
  • 2 teaspoons oil,
  • salt and chilly powder to taste.
  • Finely chop the onion and tomato each separately.
  • Take a frying pan and heat the oil. When the oil is very hot add the chopped onions and fry till golden brown.
  • Then add the ginger garlic paste and fry fro a while till the raw smell leaves. Put in the tomato and the chicken.
  • Fry it well and add the chilly powder, salt to taste and garam masala. Sauté till the raw smell leaves and an aroma begins to rise.
  • Remove from flame and set it aside.
  • Take another bowl and beat the eggs with a little salt. Take a tava and pour one teaspoon oil and 2 tablespoons egg on it.
  • Then cover the egg with a tortilla.
  • When the egg is cooked flip over the tortilla.
  • Fill the tortilla with the chicken and top it with chopped onions, cilantro and a few drops of lime juice.
  • Roll it up and put a tooth pick to seal it and serve with tomato sauce.
Re-defining the perception of advanced mobile phones… the HTC Touch Diamond™ signals a giant leap forward in combining hi-tech prowess with intuitive usability and exhilarating design.

Featuring a sharp 2.8-inch touch screen housed within a stunning formation of brushed metal and flawless faceted edges, the HTC Touch Diamond is as beautiful to behold as it is to use.

With HTC’s vibrant touch-responsive user interface, TouchFLO™ 3D, and ultra-fast HSDPA internet connectivity… the HTC Touch
Diamond offers a rich online experience to rival a notebook computer, allowing you to interact with Google, YouTube, and Wikipedia as freely as you would with a broadband connection.

Your contacts, favourite music, videos and photos are no longer an uninspired line of text. With TouchFLO 3D, album artwork, video stills and snapshots of your friends’ and family’s faces are brought to life for you to interact, play and launch at your fingertips.

A 3.2 megapixel auto-focus camera will help you capture the perfect moment in style and with a massive 4GB of internal storage you can keep all the files you need. The integrated ultra-sensitive GPS will help you find your destination as quickly and efficiently as a dedicated satellite navigation unit.

Style and substance in a phone are no longer mutually exclusive. The HTC Touch Diamond has arrived.
  • 2.8-inch touch screen, with four times the pixels of most phones.
  • Vibrant TouchFLO 3D user interface, responding perfectly to your finger gestures when scrolling through contacts, browsing the web, and launching media… all vividly displayed as photos and artwork powered by the 3D graphics processor.
  • HTC Weather - providing a constant view of weather at home and abroad.
  • Surf and download at broadband speed with HSDPA internet connectivity.
  • 3.2 megapixel auto-focus camera for quality stills and video.
  • 4GB of internal storage to preserve more photos, music, files and exchanged data than ever before.
  • Integrated GPS for use with maps software for a full turn-by-turn satellite navigation experience.


Processor Qualcomm® MSM7201A™ 528 MHz
Operating System Windows Mobile® 6.1 Professional
Memory ROM: 256 MB
Internal storage: 4 GB
Dimensions 102 mm (L) X 51 mm (W) X 11.35 mm (T)
Weight 110 g (with battery)
Display 2.8-inch TFT-LCD flat touch-sensitive screen with VGA resolution
  • Europe/Asia: 900/2100 MHz
  • Up to 384 kbps up-link and 7.2 Mbps down-link speeds
  • Europe/Asia: 900/1800/1900 MHz
(Band frequency and data speed are operator dependent.)
Device Control TouchFLO™ 3D
Touch-sensitive navigation control
GPS GPS and A-GPS ready
Connectivity Bluetooth® 2.0 with EDR
Wi-Fi®: IEEE 802.11 b/g
HTC ExtUSB™ (11-pin mini-USB 2.0 and audio jack in one)
Camera Main camera: 3.2 megapixel color camera with auto focus
Second camera: VGA CMOS color camera
Audio Built-in microphone, speaker and FM radio with RDS
Ring tone supported formats:
  • MP3, AAC, AAC+, WMA, WAV, and AMR-NB
  • 40 polyphonic and Standard MIDI format 0 and 1 (SMF)/SP MIDI
Battery Rechargeable Lithium-ion or Lithium-ion polymer battery
Capacity: 900 mAh
Talk time:
  • Up to 270 minutes for WCDMA
  • Up to 330 minutes for GSM
Standby time:
  • Up to 396 hours for WCDMA
  • Up to 285 hours for GSM
Video call time: Up to 145 minutes for WCDMA
(The above are subject to network and phone usage.)
AC Adapter Voltage range/frequency: 100 ~ 240V AC, 50/60 Hz
DC output: 5V and 1A


M-series which includes M3 coupe,M5 sedan,M6 Convertible and BMW 6 series individual and BMW 7 series individual. These BMW M cars and BMW individual can be ordered at BMW dealership. BMW will import all these cars as CBU. Currently BMW has 9 dealers in India, by the end of 2008 it will have 12 dealers covering all Metropolitan cities.


The BMW M6 Convertible
Open for adventure. The perfect travel companion

The exterior of the BMW M6 Convertible.

One look at the M6 Convertible is all it takes to get your pulse racing. If not a result of its taut athleticism, then through its luxurious elegance. Even before you start the engine, this convertible makes it abundantly clear that a unique driving experience for all of your senses is what is in store. Once you hit the road, its sporting character unfolds with style and ease. And as soon as the automatic top opens quickly and silently you get a clear view of the skies above while experiencing heaven on earth.


Moving - even before the engine is switched on.
The interior of the BMW M6 Convertible.

Once you grip the leather steering wheel tightly in both hands, all you can think of is athletic performance. The motorsport gene

is apparent wherever you look from the specially designed M instruments to the ergonomic M seats. Once inside this luxurious sports convertible, the perfect blend of dynamics and elegance is so intense that you'll never want your journey to end. Add an individual touch to this already unique interior by choosing exclusive equipment such as Merino leather, interior trims in Piano Finish Black or fine-wood trims in Walnut Madeira Chesnut Brown or Olive Ash Carrara natural.

The automatic top.
The People's Car's safety performance exceeds current regulatory requirements. With an all sheet-metal body, it has a strong passenger compartment, with safety features such as crumple zones, intrusion-resistant doors, seat belts, strong seats and anchorages, and the rear tailgate glass bonded to the body. Tubeless tyres further enhance safety.

Tyre dimensions front 255/40 ZR19
Tyre dimensions rear 285/35 ZR19
Wheel dimensions front 8.5 J x 19 forged aluminium
Wheel dimensions rear 9.5 J x 19 forged aluminium

Cylinders/valves 10/4
Capacity in ccm 4,999
Stroke/bore in mm 75.2/92.0
Max. output in kW at 1/min 373/7,750
Max. torque in Nm at 1/min 520/6,100

Weight in kg  
Curb weight 2,005
Maximum permissible weight 2,380
Permitted load 450
Permitted axle load front/rear 1,120/1,290

Drag (cw) 0.731
Top speed (km/h) 250
Acceleration 0 - 100 km/h (in s) 4.8
Acceleration 0 - 1,000 m (in s) 22.8
Acceleration 80 - 120 km/h in
4th/5th gear (in s)

Fuel consumption  
Urban (l/100 km) 22.8
Extra-urban (l/100 km) 10.7
Composite (l/100 km) 15.2
CO2 emissions (g/km) 366
Tank capacity in I (approx.) 70

Light in weight, heavy in performance.
The performance weight of the BMW M6 Convertible.

Thanks to the innovative use of high-strength lightweight materials, the BMW M6 Convertible achieves an unbeatable power-to-weight ratio of only 3.95 kilograms per bhp. And the result is first-class performance. For the M6 Convertible driver, this means unrestricted agility and higher speeds when cornering. The V10 engine with its high-rev concept together with the aluminium chassis are responsible for this successful formula.



How old is your car? Some cars are just three years old yet look saggy some are ten but still groovy. Big deal right? It really is. Just when you think of selling it, the buyer gets disinterested because of corrosions, really in dilemma. Here are some tips before getting it listed in a cars classifieds or before having it sold in a car auction.

Cars are like humans. Actually they are extension of the owners themselves. Washing cars regularly, at least once a month brings back the exuding sensual image of the car. Bugs, limestone drippings when not removed might cause damage to the car leaving a permanent stain. Difference exist when washing a car and not. When it's dirty, the moisture accumulates in dirty areas causing corrosion but when the car is clean, all the moisture dries up quickly.

Using a pressure wash once in a while removes the dirt from the parts that are difficult to reach. Holding out the pressure wash jet closely to the painted surface might peel the loose paint. Places like behind moldings, inside wheel arches, under the bumpers should be washed off. This is where the dirt and salt could be accumulated. The dirt in the wind shield must also be wiped and washed. Dirts accumulated in the windshield gets caught by the windshield wipers blades and scratches the windshield when the wipers are operating.

Drying the car is one of the most important process. The wrong method of drying can cause water spots, streaks and even scratches. This ultimately ruins the car. Although not everyone has this luxury of drying, the best method is to park it in a garage or shade. Most people recommend the use of a 100 percent cotton towels to dry up. Others would recommend chamois. However this may lead breakdown and leave residue on cars. Good thing, science is constantly doing innovation, the use of synthetic chamois is great and useful.

Same with how the car wash was done, using the chamois, start at the top and work way down. The flat surface must be first done before working on the sides and bumpers. Dry up under the door handles and under the side mirrors, these areas tend to hold water that will sneak up on you later. Next, grab a clean towel and open up all the doors and wipe down the door jambs, then do the same on the inside of the trunk and hood.

Just like men, grooming follows bathing. Waxing the car regularly helps. The wax protects the paint minimizing harm from chemicals. It also gives protection from fading out. The plus factor from this that it looks shiny. Waxing takes only about 30 minutes to wax a whole car. For high quality waxes this stays up to three to four months. Superb!

While the outside needs cleaning and so with its interior. The car accumulates dirt’s, dusts and rocks. The only way to get rid of
the junks is to suck it up with a vacuum. With a slim nozzle attachment, this can reach even the smallest bit s between the seats and the hardest part to reach. Better to take out the mats. Shaking them up and vacuuming removes the old dirt’s sticked on it.

Get the dash and board cleaned up, from the top down to the center console. Wipe down the door sills, the rear deck and the plastic parts between the front and rear seats on four-door cars, after you have cleaned these areas, it's time to apply some vinyl protectant. This maintains the vinyl by replenishing the oils and provides protection from harmful UV rays when parked outside. Lastly, clean the interior windows.
Once both the inside and out is clean, the result would be a shiny, and lustrous car. There is no reason why one should be shy to list it on car classifieds or car listings. If a buyer sees how good looking the car is, the deal is close. It would be difficult then to determine which is which? Is it under used cars or new cars?



Drugless remedies restore health balance. They are simple, cost effective and easy to practice. There are no side effects that are caused by chemical based drugs. What's more, the treatment can be done right in your own homes. We have collected a few of grandma's beauty tips and homemade beauty treatments that have been handed down over the years. These simple beauty tips are still being practiced in some houses. We will begin with effective beauty tips and go on to easy remedies for common ailments.

Weekly once, preferably on a Sunday when you are relaxed, try out this facial at home. Beat a raw egg and the juice of one lemon. Apply this mixture as a mask over the face and neck. Simply relax for half an hour. Do not talk! Wash off when you feel the tightening of the muscles. This pack will soften lines and smooth out wrinkles as the natural cholesterol replenishes the oil-forming cells of the skin.

When avocados are available take the pulp and apply it to the dry areas of the skin, especially on the rough parts. The unsaturated fatty acids of this fruit will stimulate the sluggish skin to produce the natural oils or sebum and make the skin look healthy and young.

Extract the juice from lettuce leaves and apply this on the skin to combat oiliness. The vitamins found in the lettuce absorb the excess oil.

Heat olive oil in a pan. When it is warm, dip a cotton ball in it, squeeze out the excess. Lie down and place the oil-soaked cotton on the lips for 10 minutes. Cracked lips will soften and heal with the emollient action of the oil.

Bathe eyes in warm water to which ½ teaspoon of table salt has been added. For puffy and swollen eyes, soak pads in a solution of 100 ml water and one tablespoon salt. Wring the pads out and place on eyes. Lie down and close your eyes. Allow the solution to work wonders in a few minutes.

Mix equal parts of baby oil and table salt. Massage this mixture on your face. While the salt removes the dead cells, the baby oils softens the emerging skin.

For hands that are tired and wrinkled with washing and cleaning up, here is a natural healing secret which is truly effective. Soak hands for 5 minutes in a basin of warm water to which three tablespoons of salt have been added. Rinse and dry. You'll see the difference.

Ice cubes have a tightening effect on enlarged pores and blotches. Wrap ice cubes in a cloth bag and apply to the affected parts for as long as you are comfortable. Ordinary buttermilk has a sterilising and toning effect on the skin and has always featured in grandma's remedies. Soak cotton pads in buttermilk and pat on your face. Let it dry for 15 minutes. Rinse off with cool water. Repeat as often as possible throughout the day.

Place a few slices of raw tomato on the face or spread mashed tomato evenly on the face. Let the juice soak into the skin. Rinse after fifteen minutes.Squeeze the juice of a cucumber and apply as a lotion. The rich mineral and vitamin content of cucumber helps to get rid of infections.For facial blemishes, apply a paste of boiled and mashed green beans. Let it dry and then rinse with cool water.For a healing effect on acne, pimples, rashes, cold sores, sunburn etc., apply cod liver oil liberally on the face. Allow it to remain for as long as possible and then wash with cool water.

Smile and hold that smile! With the heel of your palms and with firm pressure and circular movements, massage with upward strokes from the collar bone up to the templates. This will make the skin supple and elastic without stretching it.The simple beauty remedies given above are straight from Grandma's mouth and ones that have worked wonders for the previous generation. We hope you enjoy the same benefits too. Do remember to give us a feedback, so we can source a few more of them for you!


Did You Know That Changes in Food Will Improve Your Skin?
When people think of that health glow in their skin, they often think that it is a result of youth and or skin care. While these are factors that contribute to healthy, beautiful skin, the truth is that you are what you eat.

What you put into your body will come out in your skin: the better the input, the better the output. In other words, if you fill your body with unhealthy foods and other toxic substances, your skin will show it. With the proper diet, your skin can be as healthy looking and unblemished as your genetic makeup allows.

The most important part of your new healthy diet is to drink your water! Approx 2 liters of fluid (in the form of water and natural (unprocessed) juices) will remove toxins built up in your skin better than any other food or treatment. Treatments only affect the outer layers of the skin, but water cleanses the skin from the inside, so it affects all of the skins layers. This lack of toxins in the skin automatically makes it look much healthier.

Steam your vegetables and buy organic. Organic foods are important because you are not adding more toxins to your skin through the pesticides and man-made fertilizers which are contained within non organic foods. Organic foods are often more nutritious because of the rotating of crops, which replenishes the natural nutrients in the soil. By steaming your vegetables, you are also protecting the nutrient content of the foods you eat. Boiling your vegetables leeches the vitamin and minerals from the actual food and into the water. If you do boil any veggies, save the broth from it to make a soup.

Eat more raw organic fruits and vegetables. Obviously, not cooking these foods will keep from nutrient loss which comes with cooking. The only exception to this rule is carrots. You have always heard how these beauties are loaded with vitamin A but, did you know that this is encased in fibrous tissue which is very hard for your body to break down? By cooking carrots, you loosen these fibers and allow your body to use the vitamin A contained within them.

Other vegetables which are rich in vitamin A (essential for great skin) include: collard greens, broccoli, kale, spinach, sweet potatoes, turnip greens and other vegetables which are dark green or orange in color.

Eat more fish. Not only is fish a great food to eat for a number of health conditions, but the oils in it are great for your skin. Your skin will be softer and brighter from adding twice daily consumption of fish to your diet.

Throw some almonds into your day. If you do not like almonds, try walnuts, cashews, shrimp, or brown rice. These are listed in the order of vitamin E content (almonds have considerable more vitamin E than brown rice does). Some natural oils are even better for vitamin E content; these are wheat germ oil and sunflower oil.

Balance the Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids in your diet. These oils should be balanced with each other in order to work best. Omega 3 is abundant in: flaxseed oil, fish oils, fish eggs, grains, green, leafy vegetables, human milk, organ meats (liver, brain, etc), organic egg yolks, pumpkin seeds, rapeseed oil, soya bean, walnut oil.

Because of the processing procedure which is used in many of the foods we eat today, our diets are full of Omega 6 fatty acids. By purchasing organically grown fruits and vegetables and organically and grass fed (where applicable) raised meat and dairy products, you will be able to seriously reduce this over-abundance of Omega 6 in your diet.

Your body cannot produce these oils. They come from the food you eat, so you must be aware of what you are consuming in order to create a nearly equal balance of these oils. To accomplish a balance of these essential oils in your diet, you can drastically reduce the amount of processed and non organic foods that you eat while you also add more of the foods rich in Omega 3.

By doing this, your body and your skin will bless you with better performance and appearance. Remember that there has to be a balance and that you can actually tip the scales and have on over-abundance of Omega 3 if your do not pay attention to what you are doing.

BPCL to fund the development of
new third generation Photo Voltaic Cells

Bharat Petroleum has always been a forward looking company especially in terms of developing alternate sources of energy.
Under the aegis of Mr. Ashok Sinha, Chairman & Managing Director, it was decided that a research project be undertaken in order to develop efficient ways of converting solar energy into useful energy. One of the most important advantages of solar power is that solar power is an inexhaustible source of energy and if tapped efficiently, could become the most convenient and environmental friendly source of energy.

BPCL has entered into an agreement with Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. to fund the development of new third generation Photo Voltaic Cells. The project is based to design and achieve high efficiency in thin quantum layered solar cells involving concepts of Nanotechnology (super lattices and quantum dots) with the ultimate objective to develop a working model solar cell for generation of electricity.

Efforts will also be made to involve the latest technology using components such as carbon nano tubes embedded with nano material structures to enhance variation in band gap and optical absorption. The progress throughout the project would be measured with an eye on the economic viability and scalability of the final product for eventual commercialization. These efforts will contribute to generating renewable sources of power, which can be used for meeting BPCL's captive requirements.

BPC has also entered into an agreement with the institute in understanding the role of additives at nano levels, which would help R & D scientists to produce tailor-made cutting oils for different types of machining of metals. The agreement envisages evaluation of new nanomaterials for adsorption of clean gaseous fuels like natural gas and hydrogen for use in the transport sector.

We are sure that such research efforts would develop exciting products which would in the future, pave the way for success of nano technology and contributions made by India to it.