The world energy scenario depicts a picture of concern. The adverse effects on environment caused by the production and consumption of energy have resulted in severe environmental impacts across the globe.


After iPhone 4, some rumors have been surfacing around that Apple is on the works with the next generation of this device, the iPhone 5.


Nutrition facts about food OR Fossil fuel facts
Fossil fuels, also known as mineral fuels,

Summer time in India is far from being a pleasant time if you are in the plains and are not heading for the hills.

Kulfi (Pista Kulfi)
Kulfi is the most popular dessert in India during summer season.

Our Upcoming BINA Refinery
To be inaugurated and dedicated to the nation on 20th May 2011 by the hand of the respected Prime Minster Mr. Manmohan Singh.

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The world energy scenario depicts a picture of concern. The adverse effects on environment caused by the production and consumption of energy have resulted in severe environmental impacts across the globe. The supply of energy is expected to remain adequate in coming years. However, imbalance of energy consumption is prevalent around the world. Energy consumption is high in most developed countries. On the other hand, the developing countries need to consume more energy to ensure economic growth. According to estimates, energy consumption in developing countries is only one-tenth of that in the developed countries. The economic development of many countries is hindered due to “energy poverty”.

The major sources of energy in the world are oil, coal, natural gas, hydro energy, nuclear energy, renewable combustible wastes and other energy sources. Combustible wastes include animal products, biomass and industrial wastes. In 1999, the total supply of primary energy in the world was 9,744.48 MTOE (Million Tons of Oil Equivalent). According to estimates of 1999, the total supply of energy in the world in 2010 is projected to be 11,500 MTOE and that in 2020 is expected to be 13,700 MTOE. The contribution of different energy sources to the total supply of energy in the world are –

  • Oil - 35.1%
  • Coal - 23.5%
  • Natural gas - 20.7%
  • Renewable combustible wastes - 11.1%
  • Nuclear - 6.8%
  • Hydro - 2.3%
  • Other sources – 0.5%

The total consumption of energy in the world in 1999 was 6,753 MTOE. The proportion in which energy from different sources was consumed is –

  • Oil - 42.7%
  • Natural gas – 16%
  • Electricity - 15.4%
  • Renewable combustible wastes - 14.2%
  • Coal - 8.2%
  • Others - 3.5%

Oil is the most important and abundant source of energy in the world. It is also the most highly consumed. However price of crude oil is very volatile and supply is driven by price. While developed industrialized countries consume around 43 million barrels daily on an average, developing countries consume only 22 million barrels per day on an average.

Oil production is already peaking or will reach its peak within four years. After oil production begins to drop even enormous efforts to drill and produce more oil will not be able counteract the depletion of the world’s largest oil fields. The result will be rapidly increasing oil prices which will bring on worldwide periods of depression that will draw down the energy demand just enough to keep outright shortages from being widespread. Nonetheless a long period of economic decline is expected eventually alleviated by new technology and turn over to use of alternative energy sources.

Pessimists view the occurrence of peak oil to be either imminent or very close. A turn to both non-conventional and alternative energy sources as not being possible on a large scale in the near future and thus there will be an unavoidable energy gap between demand and supply for the next 10-20 years.


  • No large oil fields are likely to be found in the future
  • Although market forces will encourage increased spending, new oil put into production will not be able to compensate for the depletion of old oil fields
  • New technology allows more rapid extraction of oil but will not substantially increase the total recoverable oil from a field
  • Stated reserves, especially in the middle east are overestimates of actual recoverable oil
  • Non-conventional oil and alternative energy sources will not be able to completely fill the gap left by oil depletion after peak oil has occurred because the technologies will take too long to fully implement and none replace all the benefits of oil without their own risks.

Social and Political consequences:

Most of the books and articles written about "peak oil" or the coming "oil crisis" have a basically pessimistic bottom line. All of these share a common belief in the what they call the geological reality of peak oil. Where they greatly differ is in their views of the effects that the oil crisis will have on society. In some cases oil demand will result in greater global political instability and leading to more armed conflicts. Oil rich countries will gain greater influence while wealthy oil-poor countries will attempt to gain control of more oil resources. Some other countries see wealthy countries being able to dot the most with high prices alternative energy sources thus mitigating the extreme effects of the energy crunch but leaving developing countries such as China and India in a much more difficult situation.

This is a period of unprecedented tightness in oil markets, as well as a period of international instability. While history can be investigated to seek patterns and lessons, there is a broad range of extreme positions that are being taken and presented.

In order to build a framework behind these disparate views, Global Insight has developed three global oil scenarios that span the range of uncertainties and assumptions, and then has quantified the scenarios with regard to future demand, OPEC and non-OPEC production, nonconventional oil production, OPEC spare capacity, and, most importantly, the price path that will ensue. These scenarios (entitled, "Market Remanaged," "Supply Constrained," and "Cornucopia") and their implications vary greatly. It is not the intent to advocate one or another, but rather to define the boundaries of possible oil outcomes.

International Scenario

  • Projected global oil consumption is expected to register a substantial growth over the present levels. Recently published energy reports project incremental demand of about 38 million barrels per day (mbpd) in 2030 over 80 mbpd level in 2003. Most of this incremental demand will emanate from developing countries including China and India where oil consumption is expected to grow at the rate of 3.8 and 2.4 percent respectively as against the world average of 1.4 percent. Non-OPEC (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries) production, though showing an upward trend, will not be sufficient to service this incremental demand emphasising, once again, the continued dependence of the world on OPEC oil for its energy requirements.
  • High oil and gas prices have prompted increased investments in the exploration and production (E&P) sector posing new challenges for the sector in the form of increased cost of operations due to high service costs, exposure to logistically difficult terrain and shortage of technical manpower. Global refining scenario indicates very little to negligible addition in capacities in major developed consuming markets like the USA and the European countries. Developing countries like the Middle East, China and India are fast emerging as refining hubs. Needless to say that capacity augmentation in these regions would also result into possible integration of both the refining and petrochemicals business.
  • Natural gas has been rightly termed as the fuel of the 21st century. Natural gas, the third largest contributor to the global energy basket, is projected to increase at a rate faster than any other energy source. In the global context, natural gas market era has truly begun during the last 5 years. The global gas markets are fast integrating, commercial models are undergoing rapid changes, and the market structures are evolving and fast changing. Leading this growth in global gas sector are the Asian markets with special investment focus on countries like China and India.
  • It is indeed difficult to predict what will happen to oil prices over a five year period but current assessments indicate that oil prices will remain high. This will exert downward pressure on the economy, both directly and also through their impact on world economic growth. Currently, the impact of high oil prices on the world economy has somewhat been offset because the industrialised countries have adjusted to these higher oil prices. Sustained conditions of high oil prices, however, will eventually create macro-imbalances in the world economy making it vulnerable to any future ‘oil shock’. Simulations with macro-models suggest that if oil prices increase sharply in future, growth rate could be compromised by between 0.5 and 1.0 percentage points below the levels projected with present levels of oil prices.

Indian Scenario

  • India is and shall remain heavily dependent on coal for about half of its primary commercial energy requirements with the other half being dominated by oil and gas put together. The Indian hydrocarbon industry is currently passing through a challenging phase. Increasing concern for energy security, increasingly stringent environmental regulations, emergence of natural gas and soaring crude oil and natural gas prices have thrown up both challenges and opportunities to the Indian oil and gas industry.
  • Projected high domestic demand for petroleum products is expected to push investments into the refining sector. India, with 18 refineries, currently has a surplus refining capacity which has placed India amongst net petroleum product exporter countries. Increasingly stringent fuel specifications have put pressure on the old and non-compliant refineries to upgrade their refinery configurations to produce compliant fuels. The Government is seriously considering promoting India as a competitive refining destination to service export market for petroleum products as also integrating it with the petrochemical and chemicals businesses to produce and export higher revenue generating value added products.
  • Exceptionally high crude oil prices in the international market and an almost stagnant domestic crude oil production has caused a drain on country’s foreign exchange reserves. The Government is committed to mitigating these challenges and has, in fact, met with accelerated domestic exploration through its New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) policy initiative. Some of the world class oil discoveries have recently been reported from blocks offered under the NELP regime. Five NELP rounds have resulted into 110 PSCs being signed and the Sixth round offering 55 exploration blocks is still underway. Besides augmenting domestic reserves, India has successfully ventured overseas to acquire oil and gas assets and entered into long-term Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) contracts as measures for enhancing energy security.
  • Creating sustainable transportation system through cross-country crude oil and petroleum product pipelines in the next few decades, with the objective of preserving environment and protecting human health and safety would be a real challenge for the petroleum industry.
  • Persistence of high oil prices and dependence on imported oil leaves India with some difficult choices to make. The choice is between (a) passing on the price increase to the consumer; (b) rationalising taxes and other levies on petroleum products; and (c) making the National Oil Companies (NOCs) bear the burden. Although the Government has resorted to a combination of all above three options in the past, each of these options has its own drawbacks. In the long run, the only viable policy to deal with high international oil prices is to rationalise the tax burden on oil products over time, remove anomaly, if any, in the existing pricing mechanism, realize efficiency gains through competition at the refinery gate and retail prices of petroleum products, and pass on the rest of the international oil price increase to consumers, while compensating targeted groups below the poverty line as much as possible.
  • With the advent of LNG and progressive de-control of gas prices, the natural gas sector in India has progressed and achieved some degree of maturity. It has managed to receive progressively growing attention from global companies and has made rapid strides during the last five years. Current natural gas policy dispensations have created numerous challenges for the gas sector. Major among them are the demands of competing consumer industries, ensuring competition and open access in the pipeline transportation and distribution networks, reducing the supply demand gap that exists today.

Several important themes emerge from this study:

  • Companies and organizations that are involved or affected in any way by the future of petroleum (and this includes almost everyone) must contemplate not just one possible future for oil, but the consequences of both the upside and downside risks that are revealed from the alternative scenarios.
  • Oil markets are both very complex and unique, and will probably continue to be challenging for the foreseeable future. They are driven by a web of demand and supply fundamentals, resource economic, macroeconomic, geopolitical, and emotional factors. It is important that all of these be taken into consideration, monitored, and managed when developing forecasts of oil prices.
  • Because the future is inherently uncertain, one of the greatest values of this exercise is the identification of signposts or indicators of real-world factors that can be monitored and tracked to help define the direction being followed. This GPO sets out a number of these signposts for each of the scenarios.

Thrust Areas for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector

The following thrust points, discussed under respective industry segment, merit consideration for the healthy overall development of the oil and gas industry.

Exploration & Production

  • Increasing domestic production by attracting investments, both private and public, in the upstream sector. This needs to be attempted by involving industry participants in formulating an investor friendly E&P investment regime.
  • Taking all steps to increase the production from ONGC’s (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation) assets including their maturing field.


  • Equipping domestic refining industry both existing and planned to successfully meet the challenge of producing fuels complying with prescribed environment friendly specifications which are increasingly becoming stringent.
  • Promoting India as a competitive and economically viable refining destination to service both the domestic as well as the export market.


  • Increasing the coverage of pipelines throughout the country.
  • Leveraging the inherent advantages of using pipelines to transport products and enhancing the pipeline infrastructure in product pipelines.
  • Building a sound gas transportation infrastructure to support the projected growth of the gas market. Setting up of a regulator under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006 (PNGRB Act 2006) to regulate the downstream oil and gas sector, including gas infrastructure, is expected to provide clarity and comfort to investors interested in India’s gas transportation sector.


  • Steps need to be undertaken by all stakeholders to curb adulteration.
  • Maintaining viability of retail outlets by synergy among public sector oil marketing companies in setting up of new retail outlets.
  • Introduction of automation of retail outlets throughout the country.

Alternate Fuels

  • Promoting use of ethanol-blended petrol and bio-diesel throughout the country.
  • Exploring and exploiting country’s CBM resource.

Research and Development

  • Promoting Research and Development (R&D) activities through provision of incentives and funds.

Energy Conservation

  • Encouraging energy conservation through campaigns aimed at sensitising the people about the significance of efficient use of energy.

Addressing Workforce Challenges

  • Proactive planning for sustained availability of knowledge workers for the entire oil and gas industry.

Source :

iPhone 5 (5th Generation)

After iPhone 4, some rumors have been surfacing around that Apple is on the works with the next generation of this device, the iPhone 5. Release date of this device is rumored to be in January 2011. However, there were also some ongoing rumors that it will be in June 2011 instead. Apparently, Apple tries to address all the issues that were raised against the iPhone 4 with this upcoming device. If you will remember, Apple has faced several problems such as retina display discoloration and reception problems with the iPhone 4 when it was launched.

According to some rumors, the iPhone 5 promises a faster mobile internet, better receptions and more enhanced features that will surely make its users satisfied and happy. There were also some speculations that the upcoming iPhone 5 is also much sleeker than the iPhone 4 and even sleeker than Apple’s iPod touch. Well, those Apple aficionados out there must be really excited with this upcoming smartphone and hopes that it will come out as they have expected.

Some of the expected features that most iPhone users are looking forward to include the following:

  1. Face Recognition feature
  2. Video Chat on 3G and 4G
  3. An OLED screen
  4. Wireless Sync with Apple’s very popular iTunes
  5. Built-in GPS
  6. Longer battery life
  7. HD audio feature
  8. A scratch proof and shock-proof screen

Well, these are just some the most-awaited features that most iPhone users are expecting with this upcoming iPhone 5. But for sure knowing Apple’s reputation of coming out with a product that has been carefully studied detail by detail, the iPhone 5 will surely be loaded with amazing features that will give its users and awesome mobile experience.

White iPhone 4

The fate of the white iPhone 4 is far from certain as the device’s launch date has already been pushed back four times. Some observers speculate that we may not see a white iPhone until the expected launch of iPhone 5.
Expected launch: Spring 2011.
Expected pricing: $199 (16GB) and $299 (32GB).
Expected specs: 16GB or 32GB storage, A4 processor, 960-by-640-pixel retina display, 5-megapixel rear-facing camera, front-facing camera, iOS 4.2

HTC 7 Pro and HTC 7 Trophy

CDMA Windows Phone 7 devices hit the market in early 2011. The Pro is headed for Sprint. Verizon is rumored to be getting the HTC 7 Trophy (pictured here), which has a slightly larger screen at 3.8 inches.
Expected launch: First half of 2011.
Expected pricing: Unknown.
Expected specs: 3.6-inch (Pro) or 3.8-inch (Trophy) 480-by-800-pixel resolution WVGA display, 1GHz processor, 8GB of onboard storage, 5-megapixel camera, 720p HD video recording.

Sharp 3D Android Phones

The Sharp 003SH and 005SH 3D smartphones are just hitting the market in Japan, but Android and Me spotted these devices making their way through the Federal Communication Commission’s approval process. Neither device requires the user to wear glasses in order to view 3D games and movies on the handsets.
Expected launch: 2011.
Expected pricing: Unknown.
Expected specs: Android 2.2 (Froyo), 1GHz processor, 9.6-megapixel camera (model 003SH), 720p video capture, 8.0-megapixel camera (model 005SH), up to 32GB MicroSD card storage support.


Summer time in India is far from being a pleasant time if you are in the plains and are not heading for the hills. In fact, a typical Indian summer day in a city such as Delhi can feel like an oven that has been put on a really high pre-heated temperature mark! Yet, if you follow some simple tips, you can remain as cool as cucumber. Read on to know more.

So, how do you cope with the heat while visiting India this summer? Besides the essentials, like applying tons of sunscreen lotion and wearing loose fitting, preferably cotton clothes, here are a few tips that will keep help you keep your cool in the sweltering Indian summer!

  • Besides drinking plenty of water, drink a lot of fluids to avoid dehydration. The ever-popular nimbu pani or lemonade is an excellent drink to feel refreshed. If you are cautious of drinking lemonade, then the natural thirst-quencher is tender coconut water. Tender coconut water contains sugar, fiber, and proteins along with vitamins and minerals.
  • Eat a lot of salads and fresh fruits that naturally contain water, like water melon – in fact this fruit contains nearly 92% water and up to 14% of vitamin C. This will add to the moisture content that you will lose through sweating. Small amounts of vitamin B and potassium are also found in this fruit.
  • Drink water that is stored in earthenware pots. This method is popular in rural India so that they can beat the heat with cool drinking water.
  • Avoid eating oily food and especially avoid eating cut fruit from vendors as it may have been exposed to flies and dust.
  • For long lasting make-up, avoid moisturizer, especially if you have oily skin, and dust on some loose powder to seal the oil in.
  • Try to get some parking only in shady areas! This will ensure that your car does not heat up while you are out!
  • Keep a hand held fan to use so that you can keep cool when you are outdoors.
  • A parasol is very helpful to remain cool when you go outdoors. A pair of sunglasses will also help tremendously to keep the glare out. You can wear golf caps to avoid getting sun burnt.
  • When you feel warm indoors hang a wet sheet by a window, which is open. This way you will get cool air from the water as it evaporates and blows toward you from the open window.
  • Close your windows before it gets too hot outside. The heat will otherwise get sucked in, especially if the temperature outside is over 77 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • You could keep a spray bottle filled with water in the refrigerator so that you can spray yourself at regular intervals. The evaporation of the water will cool down the blood flowing through your veins.
  • People who live in India enjoy a spicy meal even when it’s hot, since the capsaicin in the hot peppers will make them perspire and when the sweat evaporates it makes one feel quite cool! So do try a spicy dish on a hot summer day in India to experience this magic!
  • If all else fails, why don’t you take a break and head to any of India’s hill stations and refresh yourself with its breathtaking beauty?


Skin Care tips for summer

Summer is about baring skin and showing off the beautiful (fake) summer tan you have. To get your skin ready for those cute summer dresses and sandals try these tips for summer ready skin.

  • Exfoliate:
    Your body is constantly shedding dead skin cells. If you don’t get rid of them they build up and make your skin look dull and dry. No matter how much lotion you use you will never have glowing skin if you don’t exfoliate.
  • Hydrate:
    find a fabulous summery smelling body lotion and use after every shower to seal the moisture in. Use something lighter for summer that is fast absorbing. Try a gel product or a fruity smelling mousse.
  • Hair removal:
    I won’t ask how many of you ignore your legs etc in winter because: “who’s going to see them anyway” Those lazy days are over, book a wax or get out the shaver ladies!
  • Safe Summer Glow:
    There are so many options for adding a gorgeous summer glow to your skin and, for the sake of your future health; sun-beds should not be one of them. Using a self tanning product or getting a spray tan is a great, safe way to add instant summer to your skin. For self tanning at home, try a product that builds tan slowly as it is less likely to give a streaky appearance. I recommend the St. Tropez range of self tanners as they give a really natural looking tan even on the palest skin.
  • Don’t forget your feet:
    Pack away the winter boots and break out the sandals. Either go and get a pedicure or give your feet a treat at home. Scrub away dead, dry skin with your body scrub or a pumice stone. Slather on the moisturizer before bedtime and you’ll be amazed at the difference.
  • Buy a new Sunscreen:
    Throw away last year’s sunscreen for a new bottle. Sunscreens don’t last forever and as most people don’t use theirs as often as they should I bet you have a bottle or two stored away. Be safe buy a new one.
  • Source:

Kulfi (Pista Kulfi)

Kulfi is the most popular dessert in India during summer season. It's actually the Indian version of ice cream which contains delicate spicy flavors of spices such as cardamom, saffron, cinnamon. Kulfi serves double purposes of being a chilled rejuvenatory sweet dish as well as a delectable dessert.


Ground Green Cardamom Seeds (chotti elaichi) 1/2 tsp
Milk 4 cups
Thinly sliced skinned Pista (pistachios) 1 tbsp
Sugar or to Taste 8 tsp
Finely ground Skinned Badaam (almonds) - optional 1 tbsp

  1. Take a pan and add milk to it.
  2. Boil it over high heat with constant stirring.
  3. Lower the heat and cook the milk for about 40-45 minutes.
  4. Stir the sides of the pan constantly to avoid scalding. until the milk has thickened and reduced to about 13/4th cups.
  5. Add sugar, nuts and cardamom seeds to the pan.
  6. Stir the mixture well and allow it to cool.
  7. Take Kulfi molds or small ramekins and pour the mixture into it in equal distribution.
  8. Cover with plastic wrap or foil and freeze for about 6 hours. This will make the mixture settle.
  9. Run a sharp knife around the edges of the pista kulfi to remove the ice-cream from the molds.
  10. Slip each kulfi on to a dessert plate and cut across into 3-4 slices.
  11. Chilled Kulfi is ready to be served.


Lingonberry Ice Cream

Lingonberries, tiny and tart, are one of the most beloved of all Swedish foods.


Serves for 1/2 cup scoops

yolks, beaten 3 egg
Sugar 1/3 cup
Water 1/3 cup
Whipping cream, whipped 1 cup
Lingonberry sauce (if you can't find this use cranberry-orange relish instead) 1 cup


Total Time: 35 mins

  1. 1 In small saucepan combine egg yolks, sugar, and water. Cook over low heat, stirring constantly, till thickened. Cool.
  2. 2 Fold into Whipped Cream. Fold in lingonberry sauce or cranberry orange relish. Turn into 9x5x3 inch loaf pan. Freeze 8 hours or until firm.
  3. 3 Remove from freezer 10 minutes prior to serving. Top each serving with whipped cream and grated chocolate if desired.


Easy Mango Sorbet

This sorbet is creamier than most, halfway between sorbet and ice cream, but still light and full of mango flavor.

Time: 20 minutes

MAKES 1 large yogurt container-size tub of delicious mango sorbet (SERVES 6 people)


Fresh ripe mangos 2
White sugar 1 cup
Coconut milk 3 Tbsp
Lemon juice 1 Tbsp
Whipping cream 1 small container (about 1 cup)


  1. Slice the mangos open and scoop out all of the fruit from the skins. Don't forget to include fruit around the stone (a knife works well for this).
  2. Place the fruit in a food processor or blender. Add the sugar and blitz for 1 minute, or until the sugar has dissolved and you are left with a delicious mango puree.
  3. Add the coconut milk and lemon juice, and briefly blitz to combine (a few seconds). *At this point you can perform an optional step - see below.
  4. Pour the mango puree into a bowl or container while you continue to use your processor/blender. Scape down the sides and bottom with a rubber spatula to remove as much of the puree as possible.
  5. Now pour the whipping cream into the processor/blender. Blitz until the cream forms stiff peaks, or is quite stiff (not runny) when dipped into with your finger.
  6. Add the mango puree to the whipped cream and blitz 5-10 seconds, or until you get a good mango-cream consistency.
  7. Pour into a large yogurt container or similar size tub and place in the freezer. Allow to freeze at least 6 hours, preferably 8.
  8. Serve the mango sorbet in bowls, or scoop into ice cream cones for the kids. (To make scooping easier, take the sorbet out of the freezer 10 to 15 minutes ahead of time).


Cookies and Cream Ice Cream

Making a cooked custard first makes this a quality, smooth and creamy ice cream. This recipe makes about 3 1/2 - 4 quarts of ice cream.


cups sugar 2 1/4
Flour 1/2 cup
Flour 2 tablespoons
Salt 1/2 teaspoon
Milk 5 cups
Eggs, beaten 4
Half-and-half 2 cups
Whipping cream 4 cups
Vanilla extract 2 tablespoons
chocolate sandwich style cookies, crumbled (like Oreos) 25


Prep Time: 2 1/2 hrs

Total Time: 2 3/4 hrs

  1. Combine sugar, flour (1/2 cup + 2 TBS) and salt in a saucepan.
  2. Gradually stir in milk.
  3. Cook over medium heat approximately 15 minutes or until thickened, stirring constantly.
  4. Gradually stir in 1 cup hot mixture into the beaten eggs.
  5. Add egg mixture to remaining hot mixture, stirring constantly.
  6. Cook 1 minute; remove from heat.
  7. Refrigerate 1 hour.
  8. Combine whipping cream, half and half and vanilla in large bowl; add chilled mixture, stirring with wire whisk to combine.
  9. Add crumbled cookies before freezing.
  10. Freeze as directed using your ice cream maker manufacturer's directions.


Fossil fuel facts

Fossil fuels, also known as mineral fuels, are energy sources that come from sediments, deep down in the earth's surface. They are created by anaerobic decomposition of organic matter buried deep in sediments, under influence of heat and pressure, roughly 650 million years ago.

Coal, crude oil, natural gas and its derivatives or byproducts are the main types of fossil fuels. They are called 'fossil' fuel because they were created from the fossilized remains of primitive organisms, buried deep in the earth.

Fossil Fuels Facts to Remember & Ponder
These fossil fuels facts are out there and the reality and future they predict must be dealt with. So, read these facts and understand what needs to be done for the energy needs of future generations.

  • A liter of gasoline which is derived from crude oil is made from the decomposition of about 20 metric tonnes of organic material deposited on the ocean floor, millions of years ago.
  • The United States of America was the biggest consumer of crude oil in the world, consuming 19.5 million barrels of crude oil per day, in 2008! (One barrel is about 42 US gallons). Consequently, it is also the biggest emitter of CO2 and greenhouse gases in the world.
  • Saudi Arabia is the biggest crude oil producer in the world with a total production of 10.8 million barrels per day in 2008.
  • Till date, there have been 14 major marine oil spills, losing 100,000 tonnes of crude oil, around the world, causing the death of thousands of aquatic animals. Other than that, about six million tons of fossil fuel is lost every year. If these facts about fossil fuels haven't already made you queasy, there are more to come.
  • In a 2006 survey, by the 'Energy Information Administration', it was seen, that out of the total fuel consumed world over, in that year, 86% was fossil fuel. This underlines the amount of dependence the world has on the fossil fuels.
  • World energy consumption, mostly dependent on fossil fuel is growing at 2.3% a year.
  • This is one of the fossil fuels facts which is the most alarming. A total of 21.3 billion tonnes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is produced every year through the burning of fossil fuels! Out of this, only half of carbon dioxide can be absorbed by natural processes like photosynthesis, the rest is added to the growing amount of greenhouse gases which cause global warming. Global warming is a phenomenon caused by the greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide that is heating the earth's surface temperature leading to disastrous consequences.
  • About 87% of electricity created in the world, comes from coal burning. Coal burning, followed by crude oil and natural gas, is the biggest source of carbon dioxide emission in the world.
  • If the rate of coal usage remains the same, the total coal supply in the world will be used up in 1500 years! However, the accelerated demand of coal supply is bound to finish it in roughly 86 years.
  • The total fossil fuel amount used in 1997, all over the world, was the result of the decomposition of accumulated organic matter on the whole surface of Earth, for 422 years!

Hope these fossil fuel facts are enough to give you an idea of the energy crisis that faces our generations in the future and the byproduct of gluttonous energy consumption which is global warming. Global warming will make the future world an even more hostile place to live in. Hope, this dose of fossil fuels information has conveyed the seriousness of the situation. It is time to look for alternatives of fossil fuels which are eco-friendly, non-polluting and renewable. Let these fossil fuels facts be remembered and let us resolve to stop this gluttonous consumption of energy and reduce our carbon footprint!


Nutrition facts about food


  • You don’t need to eat bananas for the potassium! (Although it is present in bananas, potassium is the predominant nutrient among most all fruits and vegetables.)
  • Bananas are high in sugar, so they should not be eaten if you have blood sugar problems.
  • Don’t eat bananas on an empty stomach; combining them with a bit of protein will help to normalize the insulin response caused by the sugar in the banana.
  • Green-tipped bananas are better for your health than over-ripe bananas.
  • On a side note: Because bananas are so popular, rainforests are often destroyed to make way for banana plantations.

Beet Greens/Root

  • Beet greens contain notable amounts of calcium, iron, magnesium and phosphorus
  • They also contain vitamins A, B-complex and C
  • Beet roots are high in carbohydrate levels and should therefore be used sparingly


  • Broccoli contains twice the vitamin C of an orange
  • It has almost as much calcium as whole milk--and the calcium is better absorbed
  • It contains selenium, a mineral that has been found to have anti-cancer and anti-viral properties
  • Broccoli is a modest source of vitamin A and alpha-tocopherol vitamin E
  • It also has antioxidant properties


  • Celery is the best vegetable source of naturally occurring sodium.
  • It is high in potassium.
  • The high water content in celery makes it ideal for vegetable juicing.
  • As an easy way to reduce grains in your diet, spread peanut butter on celery rather than bread.


  • Cilantro may be useful to treat urinary tract infections
  • Both the leaves and seeds aid digestion, relieve intestinal gas, pain and distention
  • They also treat nausea, soothe inflammation, rheumatic pain, headaches, coughs and mental stress
  • Cilantro is a member of the carrot family


  • Chicory contains insulin, which helps diabetics regulate their blood sugar levels
  • Chicory is closely related to lettuce and dandelion but is a member of the sunflower family
  • It may be cleansing to the liver and gallbladder
  • Chicory is beneficial for digestion, the circulatory system and the blood
  • Chicory leaves are a good source of calcium, vitamin A and potassium

Chinese Cabbage

  • Chinese cabbage has anti-inflammatory properties
  • It is an excellent source of folic acid
  • Chinese cabbage is low in calories and low in sodium
  • It is also high in vitamin A and a good source of potassium

Dandelion Greens

  • Dandelion is beneficial to digestion and is an antiviral that may be useful in the treatment of AIDS and herpes
  • It may also be useful in treating jaundice, cirrhosis, edema due to high blood pressure, gout, eczema and acne
  • Dandelion is also used to treat and prevent breast and lung tumors and premenstrual bloating
  • Dandelion greens are high in vitamin A in the form of antioxidant carotenoid and vitamin C
  • They also contain calcium and potassium
  • Dandelion root contains inulin, which lowers blood sugar in diabetics


  • Fennel contains the antioxidant flavonoid quercetin
  • This herb is anticarcinogenic and can be useful for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation
  • Fennel can be useful for indigestion and spasms of the digestive tract
  • It also helps expel phlegm from the lungs

Green Beans

  • Fresh beans contain vitamin A, B-complex vitamins, calcium and potassium
  • Green beans are diuretic and may be used to treat diabetes
  • A fresh bean should snap crisply and feels velvety to the touch


  • Jicama is low in sodium and high in potassium
  • It has a slightly sweet flesh that's on the order of water chestnuts, but crunchier
  • Due to their high carbohydrate content, they should be used sparingly


  • Kale eases lung congestion and is beneficial to the stomach, liver and immune system
  • It contains lutein and zeaxanthin, which protect the eyes from macular degeneration
  • It also contains indole-3-carbinol, which may protect against colon cancer
  • Kale is an excellent source of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C, and chlorophyll


  • Kohlrabi, which belongs to the cabbage family, is an excellent source of vitamin C and potassium
  • It is also high in fiber
  • Kohlrabi helps to stabilize blood sugar and is therefore useful hypoglycemia and diabetes
  • It can also be effective against edema, candida and viral conditions

Mustard Greens

  • Mustard greens are an excellent anticancer vegetable
  • They may also be beneficial for colds, arthritis or depression
  • While mustard greens sold in the United States are relatively mild in flavor, some mustard green varieties, especially those in Asia, can be as hot as a jalapeno pepper depending on their mustard oil content


  • Onions are an excellent antioxidant, and they contain anti-allergy, antiviral and antihistamine properties.
  • Sulfur compounds in onions help to detoxify the body.
  • Onions aid in cellular repair.
  • Onions are a rich source of quercetin, a potent antioxidant.
  • To obtain the maximum nutritional benefits, onions should be eaten raw or lightly steamed.


  • Parsley is useful as a digestive aid
  • It helps to purify the blood and stimulate the bowels
  • Parsley is an anticarcinogen
  • It contains three times as much vitamin C as oranges, and twice as much iron as spinach
  • Parsley contains vitamin A and is a good source of copper and manganese
  • For a natural breath freshener, try a sprig of parsley!

Peanut Butter

  • When buying peanut butter, only buy organic varieties.
  • Non-organic peanut butters are high in pesticides and fungus and contain aflatoxin, a potent carcinogenic mold.
  • To increase the protein in peanut butter (peanuts have about the same amount of protein as soy), Brewer’s yeast can be mixed in. This is especially useful for vegetarians.


  • Peanuts contain beneficial protein, but many people are allergic to them and find them hard to digest.
  • They also contain aflatoxin, a carcinogenic, which may explain why peanut farmers have been found to have disproportionately high rates of cancer.
  • Peanuts are high in fungus and, often, pesticides. They do not contain any omega-3, which can contribute to distorting your omega-6:omega-3 ratio.
  • The peanut is actually a legume, not a nut (which is why they are often roasted).
  • Peanuts contain about the same amount of protein as soy and are low in starchy carbohydrates.
  • Did you know? George Washington Carver was largely responsible for popularizing the peanut as a food in America.

Pumpkin Seeds

  • Pumpkin seeds are high in zinc, which is good for the prostate and building the immune system.
  • They also contain fatty acids that kill parasites.
  • Raw pumpkin seeds contain essential fatty acids and beneficial proteins.
  • For maximum nutritional benefits, seeds should be eaten raw.
  • Roasted seeds contain damaged fat that can lead to plaque in the arteries.


  • Radishes have antibacterial and anti-fungal properties
  • They are a member of the cabbage family
  • Radishes contain vitamin C, potassium and other trace minerals
  • Grown in Egypt since at least 2780 B.C., radishes were originally black

Sweet Potato

  • Sweet potatoes are an excellent source of carotenoid antioxidants
  • They contain calcium, are high in vitamins A and C and contain thiamine
  • Be careful: eating too many may cause abdominal swelling and indigestion
  • Sweet potatoes are also high in sugar and therefore should be used sparingly
  • Sweet potatoes are not related to the potato nor the yam--they are actually a member of the morning glory family


  • Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, flavonoids and other phytochemicals with anticarcinogenic properties
  • Tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin C (the vitamin C is most concentrated in the jelly-like substance that surrounds the seeds)
  • They also contain vitamin A and B-complex vitamins, potassium and phosphorus
  • A tomato grown in a hothouse has half the vitamin C content as a vine-ripened tomato

Our Upcoming BINA Refinery

To be inaugurated and dedicated to the nation on 20th May 2011 by the hand of the respected Prime Minster Mr. Manmohan Singh.

India is today considered one of the fastest developing economies. In the last 5 years India has seen unprecedented growth. Energy is a key driver a growing economy and petroleum remains the main source of energy production. Inclusive growth implies all round development and the state of MP has begun to contribute significantly.

Central India, will soon see rapid industrialisation on account of the strategic advantages
a. Availability of minerals like limestone, coal, copper, Zinc etc
b. Availability of water
c. Logistics advantages of the Hub position

Rich for its fauna and flora, the state of Madhya Pradesh also represents great River basins and the watersheds of many rivers like the Mahanadi, Ganga, Tapti, etc. Early industrialisation has seen the presence of many public and private sector companies that have done extremely well over the decades of their existence here. While MP is the only state that has Diamond mining in India, time has now come to encounter another equally precious commodity ‘Black Gold’

Foreseeing the huge potential of the state, BPCL under the guidance of the Ministry Of Petroleum & Natural Gas conceptualised the First Refinery of its kind here in BIna, and the 20th in the country. The Refinery is designed to process 6 MMTPA of Arab Mix crude (65% Arab Light and 35% Arab Heavy). It will also have the flexibility to process other types of Middle East crudes, adopting the state-of-art-technologies.

The advantages of the state of the art technology deployment will be seen in
a. the quality of fuels
b. environmental friendly fuels matching ‘Euro IV’ norms
c. easy scalability to meet ‘Euro V’ norms as well
d. wide range of end products

End products from the Refinery will include petroleum products, Pet coke, Sulphur and many by-products that will be raw materials for many other products.

The 20th Refinery in India, BORL will receive its Arabian crude from Dahej in Gujarat through a 935 KM long pipeline. Crude at Dahej will also be received in mid-sea through a ‘Single point Mooring’ designed to cater to Very large Crude Carrying ships (260 TMTs) & a crude oil terminal & pumping station. The refining process will be executed through a three stage process of Primary processing, Secondary processing and finally pass through the treating units. The product slate favours maximization of Middle Distillate (ATF & HSD) and minimization of Furnace Oil. Marketing terminals of the capacity of 300000 lakhs KL to store the refined product have been commissioned in the vicinity of the refinery.

Bharat Oman Refineries Limited (BORL), is a company promoted by BPCL a Fortune Global 500 company and Oman Oil Company Limited (OOCL) wholly owned by Govt. of Sultanate of Oman. The capital cost of the refinery facilities is estimated at Rs. 11,397 Cr which is financed at a debt / equity mix of 1.6 : 1. End products from the Refinery will be consumed in MP and its neighbouring states. Cross country pipelines have been laid for product evacuation up to Delhi.