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The world energy scenario depicts a picture of concern. The adverse effects on environment caused by the production and consumption of energy have resulted in severe environmental impacts across the globe. The supply of energy is expected to remain adequate in coming years. However, imbalance of energy consumption is prevalent around the world. Energy consumption is high in most developed countries. On the other hand, the developing countries need to consume more energy to ensure economic growth. According to estimates, energy consumption in developing countries is only one-tenth of that in the developed countries. The economic development of many countries is hindered due to “energy poverty”.
The major sources of energy in the world are oil, coal, natural gas, hydro energy, nuclear energy, renewable combustible wastes and other energy sources. Combustible wastes include animal products, biomass and industrial wastes. In 1999, the total supply of primary energy in the world was 9,744.48 MTOE (Million Tons of Oil Equivalent). According to estimates of 1999, the total supply of energy in the world in 2010 is projected to be 11,500 MTOE and that in 2020 is expected to be 13,700 MTOE. The contribution of different energy sources to the total supply of energy in the world are –
The total consumption of energy in the world in 1999 was 6,753 MTOE. The proportion in which energy from different sources was consumed is –
Oil is the most important and abundant source of energy in the world. It is also the most highly consumed. However price of crude oil is very volatile and supply is driven by price. While developed industrialized countries consume around 43 million barrels daily on an average, developing countries consume only 22 million barrels per day on an average.
Oil production is already peaking or will reach its peak within four years. After oil production begins to drop even enormous efforts to drill and produce more oil will not be able counteract the depletion of the world’s largest oil fields. The result will be rapidly increasing oil prices which will bring on worldwide periods of depression that will draw down the energy demand just enough to keep outright shortages from being widespread. Nonetheless a long period of economic decline is expected eventually alleviated by new technology and turn over to use of alternative energy sources.
Pessimists view the occurrence of peak oil to be either imminent or very close. A turn to both non-conventional and alternative energy sources as not being possible on a large scale in the near future and thus there will be an unavoidable energy gap between demand and supply for the next 10-20 years.
Social and Political consequences:
Most of the books and articles written about "peak oil" or the coming "oil crisis" have a basically pessimistic bottom line. All of these share a common belief in the what they call the geological reality of peak oil. Where they greatly differ is in their views of the effects that the oil crisis will have on society. In some cases oil demand will result in greater global political instability and leading to more armed conflicts. Oil rich countries will gain greater influence while wealthy oil-poor countries will attempt to gain control of more oil resources. Some other countries see wealthy countries being able to dot the most with high prices alternative energy sources thus mitigating the extreme effects of the energy crunch but leaving developing countries such as China and India in a much more difficult situation.
This is a period of unprecedented tightness in oil markets, as well as a period of international instability. While history can be investigated to seek patterns and lessons, there is a broad range of extreme positions that are being taken and presented.
In order to build a framework behind these disparate views, Global Insight has developed three global oil scenarios that span the range of uncertainties and assumptions, and then has quantified the scenarios with regard to future demand, OPEC and non-OPEC production, nonconventional oil production, OPEC spare capacity, and, most importantly, the price path that will ensue. These scenarios (entitled, "Market Remanaged," "Supply Constrained," and "Cornucopia") and their implications vary greatly. It is not the intent to advocate one or another, but rather to define the boundaries of possible oil outcomes.
Several important themes emerge from this study:
Thrust Areas for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector
The following thrust points, discussed under respective industry segment, merit consideration for the healthy overall development of the oil and gas industry.
Exploration & Production
Research and Development
Addressing Workforce Challenges
iPhone 5 (5th Generation)
After iPhone 4, some rumors have been surfacing around that Apple is on the works with the next generation of this device, the iPhone 5. Release date of this device is rumored to be in January 2011. However, there were also some ongoing rumors that it will be in June 2011 instead. Apparently, Apple tries to address all the issues that were raised against the iPhone 4 with this upcoming device. If you will remember, Apple has faced several problems such as retina display discoloration and reception problems with the iPhone 4 when it was launched.
According to some rumors, the iPhone 5 promises a faster mobile internet, better receptions and more enhanced features that will surely make its users satisfied and happy. There were also some speculations that the upcoming iPhone 5 is also much sleeker than the iPhone 4 and even sleeker than Apple’s iPod touch. Well, those Apple aficionados out there must be really excited with this upcoming smartphone and hopes that it will come out as they have expected.
Some of the expected features that most iPhone users are looking forward to include the following:
Well, these are just some the most-awaited features that most iPhone users are expecting with this upcoming iPhone 5. But for sure knowing Apple’s reputation of coming out with a product that has been carefully studied detail by detail, the iPhone 5 will surely be loaded with amazing features that will give its users and awesome mobile experience.
White iPhone 4
The fate of the white iPhone 4 is far from certain as the device’s launch date has already been pushed back four times. Some observers speculate that we may not see a white iPhone until the expected launch of iPhone 5.
HTC 7 Pro and HTC 7 Trophy
CDMA Windows Phone 7 devices hit the market in early 2011. The Pro is headed for Sprint. Verizon is rumored to be getting the HTC 7 Trophy (pictured here), which has a slightly larger screen at 3.8 inches.
Sharp 3D Android Phones
The Sharp 003SH and 005SH 3D smartphones are just hitting the market in Japan, but Android and Me spotted these devices making their way through the Federal Communication Commission’s approval process. Neither device requires the user to wear glasses in order to view 3D games and movies on the handsets.
Summer time in India is far from being a pleasant time if you are in the plains and are not heading for the hills. In fact, a typical Indian summer day in a city such as Delhi can feel like an oven that has been put on a really high pre-heated temperature mark! Yet, if you follow some simple tips, you can remain as cool as cucumber. Read on to know more.
So, how do you cope with the heat while visiting India this summer? Besides the essentials, like applying tons of sunscreen lotion and wearing loose fitting, preferably cotton clothes, here are a few tips that will keep help you keep your cool in the sweltering Indian summer!
Skin Care tips for summer
Summer is about baring skin and showing off the beautiful (fake) summer tan you have. To get your skin ready for those cute summer dresses and sandals try these tips for summer ready skin.
Kulfi (Pista Kulfi)
Kulfi is the most popular dessert in India during summer season. It's actually the Indian version of ice cream which contains delicate spicy flavors of spices such as cardamom, saffron, cinnamon. Kulfi serves double purposes of being a chilled rejuvenatory sweet dish as well as a delectable dessert.
Lingonberry Ice Cream
Lingonberries, tiny and tart, are one of the most beloved of all Swedish foods.
Serves for 1/2 cup scoops
Easy Mango Sorbet
This sorbet is creamier than most, halfway between sorbet and ice cream, but still light and full of mango flavor.
Time: 20 minutes
MAKES 1 large yogurt container-size tub of delicious mango sorbet (SERVES 6 people)
Cookies and Cream Ice Cream
Making a cooked custard first makes this a quality, smooth and creamy ice cream. This recipe makes about 3 1/2 - 4 quarts of ice cream.
Fossil fuel facts
Fossil fuels, also known as mineral fuels, are energy sources that come from sediments, deep down in the earth's surface. They are created by anaerobic decomposition of organic matter buried deep in sediments, under influence of heat and pressure, roughly 650 million years ago.
Coal, crude oil, natural gas and its derivatives or byproducts are the main types of fossil fuels. They are called 'fossil' fuel because they were created from the fossilized remains of primitive organisms, buried deep in the earth.
Fossil Fuels Facts to Remember & Ponder
Hope these fossil fuel facts are enough to give you an idea of the energy crisis that faces our generations in the future and the byproduct of gluttonous energy consumption which is global warming. Global warming will make the future world an even more hostile place to live in. Hope, this dose of fossil fuels information has conveyed the seriousness of the situation. It is time to look for alternatives of fossil fuels which are eco-friendly, non-polluting and renewable. Let these fossil fuels facts be remembered and let us resolve to stop this gluttonous consumption of energy and reduce our carbon footprint!
Nutrition facts about food
Our Upcoming BINA Refinery
To be inaugurated and dedicated to the nation on 20th May 2011 by the hand of the respected Prime Minster Mr. Manmohan Singh.
India is today considered one of the fastest developing economies. In the last 5 years India has seen unprecedented growth. Energy is a key driver a growing economy and petroleum remains the main source of energy production. Inclusive growth implies all round development and the state of MP has begun to contribute significantly.
Central India, will soon see rapid industrialisation on account of the strategic advantages
Rich for its fauna and flora, the state of Madhya Pradesh also represents great River basins and the watersheds of many rivers like the Mahanadi, Ganga, Tapti, etc. Early industrialisation has seen the presence of many public and private sector companies that have done extremely well over the decades of their existence here. While MP is the only state that has Diamond mining in India, time has now come to encounter another equally precious commodity ‘Black Gold’
Foreseeing the huge potential of the state, BPCL under the guidance of the Ministry Of Petroleum & Natural Gas conceptualised the First Refinery of its kind here in BIna, and the 20th in the country. The Refinery is designed to process 6 MMTPA of Arab Mix crude (65% Arab Light and 35% Arab Heavy). It will also have the flexibility to process other types of Middle East crudes, adopting the state-of-art-technologies.
The advantages of the state of the art technology deployment will be seen in
End products from the Refinery will include petroleum products, Pet coke, Sulphur and many by-products that will be raw materials for many other products.
The 20th Refinery in India, BORL will receive its Arabian crude from Dahej in Gujarat through a 935 KM long pipeline. Crude at Dahej will also be received in mid-sea through a ‘Single point Mooring’ designed to cater to Very large Crude Carrying ships (260 TMTs) & a crude oil terminal & pumping station. The refining process will be executed through a three stage process of Primary processing, Secondary processing and finally pass through the treating units. The product slate favours maximization of Middle Distillate (ATF & HSD) and minimization of Furnace Oil. Marketing terminals of the capacity of 300000 lakhs KL to store the refined product have been commissioned in the vicinity of the refinery.
Bharat Oman Refineries Limited (BORL), is a company promoted by BPCL a Fortune Global 500 company and Oman Oil Company Limited (OOCL) wholly owned by Govt. of Sultanate of Oman. The capital cost of the refinery facilities is estimated at Rs. 11,397 Cr which is financed at a debt / equity mix of 1.6 : 1. End products from the Refinery will be consumed in MP and its neighbouring states. Cross country pipelines have been laid for product evacuation up to Delhi.
‘WORKING TOWARDS INDIA’S ENERGY SECURITY’