"When nothing happens for a long time, people begin to assume that nothing ever happens. But, sooner or later, something always happens.” -- Steven Lagavulin

India spends maximum of its foreign earnings on importing crude oil for meeting its growing energy demand. On the other hand, Global warming is the looming concern today.
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“When nothing happens for a long time, people begin to assume that nothing ever happens. But, sooner or later, something always happens.” -- Steven Lagavulin

India spends maximum of its foreign earnings on importing crude oil for meeting its growing energy demand. On the other hand, Global warming is the looming concern today.

Every drop of it is precious. Which is why you ensure zero on the display of the fuel gauge at a filling station? You also ensure that even the last drop of fuel goes into the tank. Smart enough.

Then you hit the roads... frequently shifting gears, abruptly braking and stamping on the accelerator at traffic junctions. This is where one turns foolhardy: you are wasting fuel after taking the trouble of ensuring that it is filled to the last drop.

According to a study by the Petroleum Conservation Research Association, over-speeding, rash and rough driving, sudden acceleration, jack-rabbit starting, violent and sudden braking, shifting gears without double de-clutching, improper gear selection, clutch riding result in major fuel loss.

The present oil price crises raises a doubt in everyone’s mind – are we scraping the bottom of the oil reservoirs that it has become so precious. (Oil price has grown more than 300 % in the last half a decade). The world is said to have reached a point of Peak Oil. Peak oil is the point at which about half the oil reserves in the world have been produced. Peak oil is not the end of oil. It is the end of cheap oil.

Petroleum in different forms touches different wakes of life in some manner or other. In the form of fuel it is required to drive vehicles, trains ships & airships. In its petrochemical form it is used for the production of all articles (plastics to medicine) that is used by any common man, even modern food production is fossil fuel and petrochemical powered: Pesticides and agro-chemicals are made from oil; Commercial fertilizers are made from ammonia, which is made from natural gas. In short, people gobble petroleum products like any vehicle

In view of its multifarious use, the high cost and the low availability, this product has presently become so dear that its impact on the national economy is telling very disturbingly. It is time to call upon our inner selves as responsible Indian citizens to use this precious product judiciously both towards the individuals as well as the Nation’s interest

Can some thing be done to offset this uncanny demand and use of the fuel? Is there no other alternative?

Well alternative fuels though available is so nascent in its use, that to commit it as one part of the solution is very difficult. This article is dedicated to the cause of educating about the alternative fuels available for exploiting and the status of their use

Alternative fuels, also known as non-conventional fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as a fuel, other than conventional fuels. Conventional fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, propane, and natural gas), and nuclear materials such as uranium.

Some well known alternative fuels include biodiesel, bioalcohol (ethanol, butanol), chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells), hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural gas, vegetable oil and other biomass sources.
Demand for alternative fuels

In the year 2000, there were about 12 million vehicles around the world that ran on alternative fuels, indicating a sustainability.

The major environmental concern, according to an IPCC report, is that "Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations". Since burning fossil fuels are known to increase greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, they are a likely contributor to global warming.
Another concern is the peak oil theory, which predicts a rising cost of oil derived fuels caused by severe shortages of oil during an era of growing energy consumption. According to the 'peak oil' theory , the demand for oil will exceed supply and this gap will continue to grow , which could cause a
growing energy crisis starting between 2010 and 2020.Lastly, the majorityof the known petroleum reserves are located in the middle east. There is general concern that worldwide fuel shortages could intensify the unrest that exists in the region, leading to further conflict and war.

The production of alternative fuels can have widespread effects. For example, the production of corn-based ethanol has created an increased demand for the feed stock, causing rising prices in almost everything made from corn. However, in a competitive free market, an increased supply of ethanol reduces the demand for conventional fuels, and thus lowers fuel prices. The ethanol industry enables agricultural surpluses to be used to mitigate fuel shortages.
  • Alternative Fuel Types
These days, you can drive a variety of cars and trucks off the dealer showroom floor that use something besides gasoline or diesel fuel for a power source. Listed below are some of the alternative fuels that are available today.
Alcohol fuels are usually of biological rather than petroleum sources. When obtained from biological sources, they are known as bioalcohols (e.g. bioethanol). It is important to note that there is no chemical difference between biologically produced alcohols and those obtained from other sources. However, ethanol that is derived from petroleum should not be considered safe for consumption as this alcohol contains about 5% methanol and may cause blindness or death. This mixture may also not be purified by simple distillation, as it forms an azeotropic mixture.

Bioalcohols are still in developmental and research stages. Use of optimized crops with higher yields of energy, elimination of pesticides and fertilizers based on petroleum, and a more rigorous accounting process will help improve the feasibility of bioalcohols as fuels
Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based diesel fuel consisting of short chain alkyl (methyl or ethyl) esters, made by transesterification of vegetable oil, which can be used (alone, or blended with conventional petrodiesel) in unmodified diesel-engine vehicles. Biodiesel is distinguished from the straight vegetable oil (SVO) (aka "waste vegetable oil", "WVO", "used vegetable oil", "UVO", "unwashed biodiesel", "pure plant oil", "PPO") used (alone, or blended) as fuels in some converted diesel vehicles. "Biodiesel" is standardized as mono-alkyl ester and other kinds of diesel-grade fuels of biological origin are not included.
Biofuel (if cultivated, then also called agrofuel or agrifuel) can be broadly defined as solid, liquid, or gas fuel consisting of, or derived from recently dead biological material, most commonly plants. This distinguishes it from fossil fuel, which is derived from long dead biological material.

Biofuel can be theoretically produced from any (biological) carbon source. The most common by far is photosynthetic plants that capture solar energy. Many different plants and plant-derived materials are used for biofuel manufacture.

Biofuels are used globally and biofuel industries are expanding in Europe, Asia and the Americas. The most common use for biofuels is as liquid fuels for automotive transport. The use of renewable biofuels provides increased independence from petroleum and enhances energy security.

There are various current issues with biofuel production and use, which are presently being discussed in the popular media and scientific journals.
These include: the effect of moderating oil prices, the "food vs fuel" debate, carbon emissions levels, sustainable biofuel production, deforestation and soil erosion, impact on water resources, human rights issues, poverty reduction potential, biofuel prices, energy balance and efficiency, and centralised versus decentralised production models.
One of the greatest technical challenges is to develop ways to convert biomass energy specifically to liquid fuels for transportation. To achieve this, the two most common strategies are:
  • To grow sugar crops (sugar cane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum), or starch (corn/maize), and then use yeast fermentation to produce ethanol (ethyl alcohol).
  • To grow plants that (naturally) produce oils, such as oil palm, soybean, algae, or jatropha. When these oils are heated, their viscosity is reduced, and they can be burned directly in a diesel engine, or the oils can be chemically processed to produce fuels such as biodiesel.
Wood and its byproducts can be converted into biofuels such as woodgas, methanol or ethanol fuel. Some researchers are working to improve these processes.
Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel. One type of biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure or sewage, municipal waste, and energy crops. This type of biogas comprises primarily methane and carbon dioxide. The other principal type of biogas is wood gas which is created by gasification of wood or other biomass. This type of biogas is comprised primarily of nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide, with trace amounts of methane.

The gases methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. Air contains 21% oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a low-cost fuel in any country for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be utilized in modern waste management facilities where it can be used to run any type of heat engine, to generate either mechanical or electrical power. Biogas is a renewable fuel and electricity produced from it can be used to attract renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world.
Jatropha Fuel: A promising, clean alternative energy.
Jatropha is a valuable multi-purpose crop to alleviate soil degradation, desertification and deforestation, which can be used for bio-energy to replace petro-diesel, for soap production and climatic protection, and hence deserves specific attention

Jatropha can help to increase rural incomes, self-sustainability and alleviate poverty for women, elderly, children and men, tribal communities, small farmers. It can as well help to increase income from plantations and agro-industries.

There are various trees that are suitable for bio-diesel production. Out of all these trees, Jatropha must be regarded as a sure inclusion and the foundation around which a plan can be built if for nothing but its pure hardiness and stress handling ability. It is just a tree that has enough credentials. That is why the Planning Commission of India has nominated it as ideal plant for biodiesel.
Hydrogen - a very special type of gas .
Hydrogen has been called the "most alternative" of the alternative fuels: if it is made by electrolysis of water using electricity from a nonpolluting source like wind or solar power, then no pollutants of any kind are generated by burning it in an internal combustion engine except for trace amounts of nitrogen oxides, and if it is used in a fuel cell then even these disappear. Furthermore, no greenhouse gases are generated because there's no carbon in the fuel. All that comes out the vehicle's exhaust is drinkable water! Using hydrogen as the "battery" to store energy from a nonpolluting, renewable source would result in a truly unlimited supply of clean fuel. The advantage of using hydrogen to store energy rather than a battery pack is that a hydrogen tank can be refilled in minutes rather than recharged in hours, and it takes less space and weight to store enough hydrogen to drive a given distance on a single refueling than it does to carry enough battery capacity to go the same distance on a single recharging. The battery-electric drivetrain uses energy more efficiently, and can handle the vast majority of daily commute-and-errands driving that people do, but for long trips hydrogen could prove to be a lot more convenient.
The Fuel of the Future, or Futuristic Looking Fuel?

Because hydrogen burns nearly pollution-free, it has been looked at as the ultimate clean fuel. When burned, it turns into heat and water vapor. When burned in an internal combustion engine (the kind of engine in gasoline cars today), the combustion also produces small amounts of other gases. These other gases are mostly oxides of nitrogen because the hydrogen is being burned with air, which is about two-thirds nitrogen. Being a non-carbon fuel, the exhaust is free of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide, emitted from our burning of fossil fuels, is causing the world's climate to change.
Liquefied petroleum gas, or LP gas, is one of the most common alternative fuels used in the world today. In fact, in many places, it isn't an alternative fuel at all: LP gas is a mainstay for heating and cooking in certain areas of India and some rural areas of the United States. When you cook out at a campground or in your backyard using a gas grill or camping stove, you're using some form of LP gas. Known for its versatility and efficiency, these days LP gas is looking like an attractive source of energy for people fed up with high heating bills and skyrocketing prices at the gas pump.
CNG The rising prices of fuel and the ever increasing pollution has forced us to think of alternative forms of fuel. CNG can be a very good alternative fuel. It is not only environmentally clean, but is also the cheapest of all fuels.

CNG is a fossil fuel and comes straight from the bowels of the earth just like crude oil and is drawn from the oil wells.

CNG has grown into one of the major fuels used in car engines in India. In fact, most buses, taxis, personal vehicles and rickshaws have been converted to CNG powered technology. It is the cleanest burning fuel operating today.
Natural gas is a by-product of oil drilling and coal mining, but it can also be harvested independently from natural gas fields.

It can be used as a motor fuel in 2 forms: compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). LNG is used mostly for heavy-duty trucks and buses and also for fleet usage. Cars and light trucks are available as a special order from manufacturers or standard gasoline vehicles can be converted.

Natural gas can be used as a motor fuel as either compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). Cars and light trucks may be ordered from manufacturers to operate on natural gas, and can also be set up as bi-fuel vehicles: to operate on either gasoline or natural gas. A real plus—if natural gas is available where you live, a filling station can be outfitted right in your garage for convenient at home refueling.
Electricity can be made by many means, from the burning of high-sulfur coal to pollution-free photovoltaic cells (or solar cells). Electric vehicles are generally divided into battery and hybrid classes, depending on whether the electricity is generated off-board and stored in a battery or generated by a small on-board powerplant. Hybrid electric vehicles can be designed to run on any fuel, including gasoline or diesel as well as alternative fuels, and can best be thought of as highly-efficient gasoline, diesel, or alternative-fueled vehicles.

Electricity is considered an alternative fuel since it is used to charge the batteries that power the motors in electric vehicles. Electric cars can also be powered by hydrogen fuel cells instead of batteries.

Even though the vehicle itself produces zero pollutants, when emissions from the power generating stations from traditional sources (coal, oil-fired or nuclear) are factored in, battery powered electric cars still produce less than 10 percent of the emissions of standard internal combustion engine cars. Add to that the fact that every year more wind and solar generating stations are coming online—making clean electricity more available and accessible. In addition, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles create their own electricity with no emissions at all. Electricity may just be one of the alternatives that could help power your lifestyle, joining thousands of people who have already made the switch.
  • Following are major concerns why India drastically needs a national movement on Fuel conservation in order to promote fuel efficiency in each sector of the economy:
  • World 8 years away from being a living hell – IPCC report - May 2007.
  • 450 MMT out of 1100 MMT of CO2 emissions in India from fossil fuels (POL).
  • India 5th largest emitter of CO2 in the world after USA (5800MT), China (4732 MT), Russia (1529 MT) & Japan (1215 MT).
  • Growth of consumption of petroleum products in the Xth Plan was 2.6% annually, when the economy is growing at 8% per annum.
  • Projected growth rate of petroleum products for India is 2.4% per annum till 2030.
  • Efforts mostly on supply side management (SSM) i.e. NELP, acquisition of assets abroad, JVs with leading oil majors for setting up refineries etc.
  • Cost of demand side management is a fraction as compared to SSM
  • DSM reduces CO2 emissions
  • Most developed and emerging nations heavily into DSM
  • Good DSM will ensure that India emerges as an environmentally responsible super power.
  • China targeting for 20% reduction between 2006 and 2010!!
  • Energy Policy for Europe(EPE)2007 :20% reduction in energy consumption by 2020.
  • Japan - 9.2 times more energy efficient per $1000 of GDP compared to India.
  • Energy consumption levels today in Industrial sector in Japan is same as 1973 levels!!!
  • India consumes petroleum products worth Rs 4 lakh Crores per annum !!!
  • A 2 - 2.5 % conservation would result into a saving of Rs. 8000 - 10000 crores per year !!!
With concerted conservation efforts, India can achieve 8% GDP growth rate which could be almost POL neutral !!!

objective is to promote efficient utilization of petroleum products in India. On an average, the consumption pattern of petroleum products in India is as follows: Energy consumption levels today in Industrial sector in Japan is same as 1973 levels!!!
  • Transport (Petrol, Diesel, CNG, Aviation Fuel) : 51%
  • Industry (Petrol, Diesel, Fuel Oil, Naphtha, Natural Gas): 14%
  • Commercial & Others : 13%
  • Domestic (LPG & Kerosene): 18%
  • Agriculture (Diesel): 4%
  • Tips on Fuel conservation in various sectors
  • Transport Sector
  • Industry Sector
  • Commercial Sector
  • Domestic Sector
  • Agriculture Sector
Tips on fuel conservation in transport sector
  • Delhi alone burns petrol/diesel worth Rs. 994 Crores per annum at traffic red lights
  • Switch off your engine beyond 15 seconds at traffic red lights to reduce your petrol bill
  • Drive your car at 45 KMPH and save petrol up to 15% against driving at 65 KMPH
  • If you drive your car at 80 KMPH, you burn 30% more petrol Correct tyre pressure can save up to 10% petrol
  • Maximize use of 5th gear to get better mileage
  • Drive in correct gear always for fuel efficiency – incorrect gear driving can lead you 20% increase in fuel consumption
  • Keep your engine healthy by regular tuning – it saves you 6% fuel
  • Clean your air filter regularly – dust causes rapid wear of engine components and increases fuel consumption
  • Avoid frequent apply of Brakes. “stop-and-go” driving wastes fuel. Save fuel by anticipating stops and adjusting your speed accordingly
  • Riding the clutch damages clutch linings and causes loss of energy. Keep your foot off the clutch and save fuel
  • Don’t wait for your car engine to warm up. Drive in low gear till the engine warms up and save fuel
  • Share your car for car pool. It considerably reduces your monthly fuel bill
  • Even though a slightly longer route, you get more mileage per liter if you take a less congested route
    Judicious use of car Air Conditioner can result in considerable fuel saving. You burn 20% more fuel when AC is in use
  • Unnecessary loads increase fuel consumption. A reduction in weight increases fuel efficiency.
Check the car manual and oil manufacturer’s recommendations before using any particular grade of oil. Use recommended grade of engine oil.
Tips on fuel conservation in industrial sector
  • Undertake regular energy audit to reduce your energy bill
  • Leakage of one drop of oil per second amounts to a loss over 200 liters of oil every year – Carry out energy audit in your industry
  • Incomplete combustion leads to wastage of fuel – Carry out energy audit to identify wastage
  • Recover and utilize waste heat from furnace flue gases for preheating of combustion of air – Carry out energy audit in your industry
  • Reduce heat losses through furnace openings – Carry out energy audit in your industry
  • Recover heat from steam condensate – Carry out energy audit in your industry
  • Improve boiler efficiency by checking radiation loss, incomplete combustion, blow down loss, excess air and save up to 20% fuel – Carry out energy audit in your industry
  • Maintain steam pipe insulation to save considerable amount of fuel – Carry out energy audit in your industry
Tips on fuel conservation in Commercial Sector
Carry out energy audit in big buildings to reduce electricity consumption. You can reduce your energy bill up to 35% by auditing energy consumption in your building

PCRA has already carried out prestigious energy audits in Govt. Buildings, viz. North Block, South Block, Shastri Bhavan, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi.
Tips on fuel conservation in Domestic Sector
  • A few minutes of planning ensures a big fuel saving.
  • Pressure cooking saves fuel.
  • Use optimum quantity of water in cooking to save fuel.
  • Reduce the flame when boiling starts.
  • Soak before cooking.
  • Shallow, wide vessels save fuel.
  • Put the lid to prevent heat losses and save fuel.
  • Use of the small burner saves LPG.
  • A clean burner helps save LPG.
  • Allow frozen food to reach room temperature before cooking and save LPG.
  • Plan your meal timings and save LPG or electricity on reheating food.
  • Use Nutan Deep Kerosene Lamp that saves 50% kerosene in comparison to the conventional bottle and flick kerosene lamp.
Tips for fuel conservation in Agriculture Sector
  • For Irrigation Pump set, low friction ISI marked foot valve can save up to 10% diesel consumption
  • Bigger diameter rigid PVC Pipeline saves considerable amount of diesel in pump irrigation system Pipeline arrangement in Pump Irrigation system should not involve bends to save diesel and sharp bends should be avoided
  • Know your Tractor and stop diesel leakage
  • Turn your engine off when you stop your Tractor
  • Drive your Tractor in correct gear …… always
  • Does your Tractor smoke? It means it wastes diesel
  • Dirt – your engine’s worst enemy… clean engine regularly
  • Match hauling capacity with load
  • Plan your field run
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd (BPCL), which has made its maiden commercial foray into bio-diesel. The company, in collaboration with construction major Shapoorji Pallonji and Nandan Biomatrix Ltd, is forming a joint venture to cultivate, extract, and sell jatropha-based bio-diesel through its outlets.
Masala Dal
Masala Dal consists of several types of lentils cooked with meat and vegetables and served with biryani and kababs.
  • 1/2 kg breast or leg of lamb cut into 1 inch cubes
  • 2 medium onions, finely sliced
Make following Paste or use 2 teaspoons each of readymade Dhansak and Sambhar Masala with 6 garlic cloves.
  • 6 garlic cloves
  • 1 inch piece of fresh ginger root.
  • 8 dry red chilies
  • 1 desert spoon cumin seeds
  • 1 desert spoon coriander seeds
  • 1 inch piece cinnamon stick
  • 2 cardamoms, peeled
  • 4 black peppercorns
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon turmeric powder
  • 2 teaspoons dhana jeera powder
  • 1/3 cup toover dal
  • 1/3 cup moong dal
  • 1/3 cup masoor dal
  • 1 cup toover dal (yellow lentil)
  • 1 medium brinjal (egg plant) cut into 4 pieces)
  • 100 gms piece of red pumpkin cut into 4 pieces
  • A few sprigs small leaved methi bhaji (spinach) optional.
  • 2 large tomatoes, chopped
  • 1 tablespoon tamarind pulp or 1 teaspoon tamarind concentrate.
  • 1 tablespoon grated jaggery
  • 2 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 3 tablespoons vegetable oil or melted ghee.
  • Heat oil or ghee in a deep pan and fry onion in it till brown.
  • Add masala paste, tumeric powder and dhana jeera powder and cook for 5 minutes.
  • Add tomatoes and cook for 5 minutes
  • Add meat and cook till water from meat has dried.
  • Add the 3 dals, brinjal, methi bhaji and mix well
  • Gradually add 6 cups water and salt bring to boiling point.  Cover and cook on a slow fire till meat is tender.  Remove pan from fire.
  • Soak tamarind pulp in 1/3 cup boiling water for 15 minutes, then strain liquid through a sieve pressing down hard on the tamarind pulp to extract all its juices.  Discard the pulp.
  • Remove meat from the dal and keep aside.
  • Mash dal through a colander into another pan then return meat to dal.
  • Add tamarind juice and jaggery to meat and dal and cook on slow fire for 10 minutes adding extra water if dal is too thick.
  • Before serving sprinkle over dal 1 finely sliced onion, fried brown, and 1/2 desert spoon finely chopped fresh coriander.
  • Serve with biryani (2 cups) and kababs accompanied by kuchumbar and lemon slices.
  • Serves 6.
Recipe taken from :http://www.parsionline.com/20_parsi_recipes.htm#6
Chicken Biryani
  • 2 cups Basmati Rice
  • 3/4 kg Chicken Pieces
  • 1/2 cup Milk
  • 1 cup Yogurt (curd)
  • 3 sliced onion
  • 1 tsp Ginger Paste
  • 1/2 tsp Garlic Paste
  • 1 tsp Green Chilli Paste
  • 1/2 cup Tomato Puree
  • 2 tsp Red Chilli Powder
  • 1 tsp Turmeric Powder
  • 1 tsp Roasted cumin powder
  • 2 tsp Garam Masala Powder
  • 1/2 tsp Green Cardamom Powder
  • Saffron a pinch
  • 1 tsp Coriander Powder
  • 2 tbsp Green Coriander Leaves
  • Salt to taste
  • 7 tbsp Oil
  • Mix tomato puree, yogurt, ginger garlic paste, green chilli paste, red chilli powder, turmeric powder, roasted cumin powder, garam masala, coriander powder and salt. Stir well.
  • Marinate the chicken with this mixture and keep aside for 3-4 hours.
  • Heat oil in a pan. Fry the onions until golden brown.
  • Add the marinated chicken and cook for 10 minutes.
  • Add 4 cups of water to the rice. Mix saffron in milk and add to it. Add cardamom powder. Add the chicken pieces.
  • Pressure cook the rice. Mix gently.
  • Garnish with green coriander leaves and serve hot.
Recipe taken from : http://www.indianfoodforever.com/non-veg/chicken/chicken-biryani.html
A traditional dish at wedding dinners. Slices of fish coated with green chutney, wrapped in banana leaves and steamed. (Foil can be used instead of the banana leaves)
  • 2 large Pomfrets weighing together 900 gms.
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 10 green chilies
  • 1 teaspoons cumin seeds
  • 6 large cloves garlic
  • 2 teaspoons sugar
  • 1 teaspoons salt
  • 2 teaspoons lemon juice
  • Banana leaves or Foil
  • Remove head of fish if desired and cut each fish into 6 slices.
  • Cut large enough portions of banana leaves or foil to wrap each slice of fish. Hold each piece of banana leaf over a flame a few seconds to soften leaf and center rib. Grease one side of each portion of leaf or foil.
  • Using about 1.5 teaspoons salt per fish, rub salt into each slice of fish.
  • Coat each slice of fish with chutney.
  • Lay a slice of fish on the greased side of piece of banana leaf or foil and roll it up. Tie with thread. Do the same with other slices of fish and steam or bake for 30 minutes or till fish is cooked.
Vermicelli, fried, cooked with sugar and topped with seedless raisins (kismis) and almonds to be served as sweet on days of celebrations.
  • 100 gms very fine vermicelli
  • 5 tablespoons oil or ghee
  • 3 Desertspoons sugar or more according to taste
  • 2 tablespoon kismis (seedless raisins)
  • 24 almonds
  • teaspoons mixed cardamom and nutmeg powder
  • 1 1/2 cups water.


  • In a deep pan heat the oil or ghee.
  • Take pan off fire and add vermicelli and mix quickly till oil and vermicelli are well blended.
  • Place pan on medium fire and cook, stirring constantly for 5 minutes or until vermicelli is well fried and brown.
  • add sugar and water and cook, covered, on slow fire for 5 to 10 minutes or until the vermicelli is soft and all the water absorbed.
  • Boil almonds in water 1 minute. Cool slightly, then remove skin and slice almonds very fine.
  • Fry almonds gently in a little oil in a frying for 1 to 2 minutes. Do not allow almonds to brown much. remove and keep aside.
  • In the sameoil fry the kismis for 1 to 2 minutes. Remove.
  • Place cooked vermicelli in a serving dish, sprinkle with cardamom and nutmeg powder and top with almonds and kismis.
Rakshabandhan or Rakhi which is celebrated on a full moon day in the month of Sravan (August) This festival epitomizes the unconditional love between brothers and sisters. It is celebrated with fervour and joy all across India. The preparations start atleast a fortnight before the festival. It is the time for buying rakhis, rakhi gifts, rakhi pooja thalis etc for making the day special. Sisters cook various dishes and sweets for their beloved brothers and thus shower their love on them.
Khoya Burfi
  • 1 Lt. Milk
  • 75 gms sugar
  • 50 grams naryal chura (coconut powder)
  • 20 grams pistachios, chopped
  • 20 grams almonds, chopped
  • Boil milk reduce heat and let it simmer for 45-minutes to one hour till thick paste like. Keep stirring in between.
  • Add sugar and coconut powder and stir till sugar dissolces. Grease a thali and pour the batter.
  • Garnish with pistachios and almonds.
  • Let it cool and cut into square or rhomboid pieces.
Recipe taken from :http://www.raksha-bandhan.com/rakhi-recipes.html
Banana Cutlets
  • 6 Raw bananas
  • 1/4 cup fresh peas, boiled
  • 1/4 cup beet root, boiled and finely chopped
  • 1 tbsp. each mint leaves & coriander leaves finely chopped
  • 4-5 green chillies finely chopped
  • 1" piece ginger grated(optional)
  • 1/2 tsp. each mustard & cumin seeds
  • 1/2 tsp asafetida
  • 1/2 tsp. turmeric powder
  • 1 tsp. Amchur
  • oil to deep fry
  • 1-1/2 cups Breadcrumbs
  • salt to taste
  • Steam whole bananas with skins, till soft. Remove skins. Mash while still hot. And keep aside.
  • Heat 2 tbsp. oil in a pan, add seeds, allow to splutter.
  • Add asafoetida, mint, coriander, chillies, ginger, amchur, peas and beet root. Mix this well with the mashed bananas.
  • Add salt and other spices as well.
  • Heat oil in a pan. Shape the cutlets with the mixture, roll them in the breadcrumbs and deep fry till golden brown.
  • Drain and serve hot with green chutney or tamarind chutney or tomato ketchup
Recipe taken from :http://www.raksha-bandhan.com/rakhi-recipes.html
Almond Seera Recipe
Ingredients :
  • 1 1/2 Cup almonds
  • 3 Cups hot milk
  • 250 gms Ghee
  • 1/2 Cup sugar
  • Soak the almonds overnight.
  • Peel off the almonds and wash.
  • Grind to make fine paste.
  • Fry the paste in ghee. First fry it on a high flame then on slow flame.
  • The paste should become light brown.
  • Gradually pour warm milk and stir.
  • When the mixture becomes thick, add sugar and cook again. Keep stirring till ghee gets separated.
  • Garnish it with chopped nuts.
  • Almond Seera is ready to serve.
Recipe taken from : http://www.indobase.com/recipes/details/almond-seera.php
iPhone 3G
Introducing iPhone 3G. With fast 3G wireless technology, GPS mapping, support for enterprise features like Microsoft Exchange, and the new App Store, iPhone 3G puts even more features at your fingertips. And like the original iPhone, it combines three products in one — a revolutionary phone, a widescreen iPod, and a breakthrough Internet device with rich HTML email and a desktop-class web browser. iPhone 3G. It redefines what a mobile phone can do — again.

Make a call by tapping a name or send a text with the intelligent keyboard.

With iPhone, making a call is as simple as tapping a name or number. All your contacts appear in a list you scroll through with a flick of your finger. And Visual Voicemail plays your messages in any order you want, just like email.

Tap into calls
Tap any phone number in Contacts, Favorites, an email, an SMS text message - or almost any other application - to make a call. If you have a lot of contacts, use the search feature to quickly find specific names. iPhone also makes it easy to talk to more than one person at the same time. With a tap, you can switch between calls or create a conference call.

Play music and video on a 3.5-inch display and shop for music with a tap. With its beautiful 3.5-inch widescreen display and Multi-Touch controls, iPhone is also one amazing iPod. Browse your music in Cover Flow and watch widescreen video with the touch of a finger

Browse the real web, get HTML email, and find yourself with GPS maps.

iPhone features Safari - the most advanced web browser ever on a portable device. And with 3G and Wi-Fi, you can browse the real Internet really fast. iPhone also syncs your bookmarks from your PC or Mac and has Google and Yahoo! search built in.

What’s new on iPhone 3G

3G Speed

Surf the web and download email over fast 3G cellular networks.

Maps with GPS

Find your location, get directions, and track your route with GPS.

Technical Specifications

Size and weight
Height: 115.5 mm (4.5 inches)
Width: 62.1 mm (2.4 inches)
Depth: 12.3 mm (0.48 inches)
Weight: 133 grams (4.7 ounces)


  • 3.5-inch (diagonal) widescreen Multi-Touch display
  • 480-by-320-pixel resolution at 163 ppi
  • Support for display of multiple languages and characters simultaneously
For more information on Features and where to buy the iPhone 3G please visit the link below
Tata Motors unveils the People's Car
A comfortable, safe, all-weather car, high on fuel efficiency & low on emissions

Today, we indeed have a People's Car, which is affordable and yet built to meet safety requirements and emission norms, to be fuel efficient and low on emissions. We are happy to present the People's Car to India and we hope it brings the joy, pride and utility of owning a car to many families who need personal mobility."

Stylish, comfortable
The People's Car, designed with a family in mind, has a roomy passenger compartment with generous leg space and head room. It can comfortably seat four persons. Four doors with high seating position make ingress and egress easy.

Yet with a length of 3.1 metres, width of 1.5 metres and height of 1.6 metres, with adequate ground clearance, it can effortlessly manoeuvre on busy roads in cities as well as in rural areas. Its mono-volume design, with wheels at the corners and the powertrain at the rear, enables it to uniquely combine both space and manoeuvrability, which will set a new benchmark among small cars.

When launched, the car will be available in both standard and deluxe versions. Both versions will offer a wide range of body colours, and other accessories so that the car can be customised to an individual's preferences.

Fuel-efficient engine
The People's Car has a rear-wheel drive, all-aluminium, two-cylinder, 623 cc, 33 PS, multi point fuel injection petrol engine. This is the first time that a two-cylinder gasoline engine is being used in a car with single balancer shaft. The lean design strategy has helped minimise weight, which helps maximise performance per unit of energy consumed and delivers high fuel efficiency. Performance is controlled by a specially designed electronic engine management system.

Meets all safety requirements
The People's Car's safety performance exceeds current regulatory requirements. With an all sheet-metal body, it has a strong passenger compartment, with safety features such as crumple zones, intrusion-resistant doors, seat belts, strong seats and anchorages, and the rear tailgate glass bonded to the body. Tubeless tyres further enhance safety.

The People's Car's tailpipe emission performance exceeds regulatory requirements. In terms of overall pollutants, it has a lower pollution level than two-wheelers being manufactured in India today. The high fuel efficiency also ensures that the car has low carbon dioxide emissions, thereby providing the twin benefits of an affordable transportation solution with a low carbon footprint.

The base price for the Nano will be 120,000 rupees, including road tax and delivery. Higher level models will cost more and come with air-conditioning. Sun visors and radios are extra.

Source: http://jalopnik.com/343003/the-2500-tata-nano-unveiled-in-india
To know more visit: http://tatanano.inservices.tatamotors.com/tatamotors/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=168
The rainy days are finally here and for all those Mumbaikars who are fretting about what this monsoon would bring them and their cars- here are some handy tips that will help you whiz past this season in safety and style.

Your car
Ready to take on the lashing rains. Let's start with pre-monsoon servicing. Checking simple things like tyres, brakes, wipers and lights will ensure that your car doesn't fail you when the road conditions are harsh. Here is what you have to pay attention to:
  • Check the tyre conditions (the tread grooves should be of min 1.5mm to 2mm in all the tires. Look for sidewall cuts in tires, if so, replace them immediately).
  • Check the brake liners. Ensure proper functioning of the break system.
  • Check Brake oil
  • Replace old or brittle wipers.
  • Ensure both the wipers; signal light and tail lamp are in working condition
Driving on city roads
No matter how well your vehicle is serviced, nothing substitutes your being alert and careful on the road. Here are some tips on how you can customize your driving skills for this monsoon:

Before the start of the trip - Wet-weather driving demands gentle use of all the main controls - steering, clutch, brake and accelerator - and a larger allowance for errors and emergencies. When you begin a journey in rain, your shoes or Feet will be wet and liable to slip off the pedals, drive with dried shoes or feet. All drivers should regularly check that their headlights, taillights, brake lights and turn signals are working properly. Carry emergency equipment. Things like a flashlight, spanner or ropes may not be required but it may come in handy during any eventuality
First and foremost: slow down! It takes longer to stop or adjust in wet weather. The speed limit during the rains should be 20 kms/ Hour to 25 km/Hour.

Expressway driving - Leave lots of space between you and the vehicle in front because it takes longer to stop. You're supposed to leave a few seconds between vehicles in dry weather. Make sure you add space in wet weather because if you have to hit the brakes hard, your tires will lock up, you will hydroplane and you will most likely hit the vehicle in front of you. If available, drive in the fast lane, where there are fewer vehicles and less oil deposited on the road. Also, because of the built-in slope of the road, water drains towards the slower lanes. Avoid lane changes, as water tends to build up between the tire ruts in the lanes.

Keep safe distance from the vehicle ahead, the distance should be double during the monsoon season than during the normal season, failing which you will not be able to get adequate braking distance in case the front vehicle suddenly stops. Keep Safe Distance (Count 2001, 2002, 2003 and more and you should not have crossed the point crossed by the vehicle in front when you started counting).

Turn on your lights on even in a light rain, or in gloomy, foggy or overcast conditions. Not only do they help you see the road, but also they'll help other drivers see you. If your vehicle has daytime running lights you still should put them on, so vehicles behind you can see you better.

Drive in the tracks of a vehicle ahead of you. That way you will get a picture of what lies ahead of you well in advance

Watch out for brake lights in front of you.
Now for some Don'ts…Here are some things you should absolutely not do on rain drenched roads.
  • Do not suddenly brake while driving in the rain, instead control the speed with the accelerator, pump the brake peddle and apply the brake slowly, as sudden braking may result in skidding or overturning of the vehicle.
  • Do not suddenly swing the vehicle while driving in the rain which can result in the vehicle skidding or rolling over.
  • Avoid driving in the rain during darkness. Never drive beyond the limits of visibility. At night, rainy roads become especially treacherous. The glare of oncoming lights, amplified by the rain on your windscreen, can cause temporary loss of visibility while substantially increasing driver fatigue. In rainy conditions pedestrians, livestock, and two wheelers are extremely hard to spot and even harder to avoid.
  • Don't drive in heavy rain - When visibility is so limited that the edges of the road or other vehicles cannot be seen at a safe distance, it is time to pull over and wait for the rain to ease up. It is best to stop at rest areas or other protected areas. If the roadside is your only option, pull off as far as possible, and wait until the rain slows. Keep your headlights on and turn on emergency flashers to alert other drivers.
  • Never drive through moving water if you can't see the ground through it; your vehicle could be swept off the road.
  • Avoid off-road driving it's hard to judge the actual depth of puddles and you can easily become stuck.
  • During thunderstorm avoid contact with metal or conducting surfaces outside and inside the vehicle. Lightning that strikes nearby can travel through wet ground to your car.
Watch Out
Wet roads pose problems of their own. Being alert will help you identify potential hazards.

Oil deposits
Watch for intersections because of the oil spots in the road. Rain is most dangerous when it falls after a long, dry spell on to roads that have become polished and smooth: the rain blends with oil and rubber-dust deposits on the road surface to form a highly dangerous skid mixture. That mixture builds up at intersections, where vehicles stop and start frequently. Be extra careful immediately after it starts raining because it takes a while for the worst of the dirt and oil to get washed off the road.

Check your brakes
If you successfully pass through a deep-water hazard, test your brakes. They may be saturated, and only driving very slowly and braking lightly at the same time will generate enough heat to dry them out. Be sure they are pulling evenly on all wheels before building up speed again.
Driving skill
Specific conditions on the road will demand fine tuning of your driving both for safety as well as comfort.

Manage speed
Traction is the tyre's grip on the road. Decreased traction leads to increased stopping distance so appropriately adjust your speed for decreased traction.

Adjust your speed to stop within your seeing distance according to the visibility conditions.

Traffic conditions
Maintain safe space cushion all around your vehicle.

Road characteristics
Shape affects traction and visibility; adjust speed for curves and hills
Skids are one of the most common causes for accidents and casualties during the monsoons. Here is what you must do if you ever happen to skid on the road.

Handling a skid - You can prevent skids by driving slowly and carefully, especially on curves. Brake before entering the curves. Steer and brake with a light touch. If you find yourself in a skid, remain calm, ease your foot off the gas, and carefully steer in the direction you want the front of the vehicle to go. This procedure, known as "steering into the skid," will bring the back end of your vehicle in line with the front. For vehicles without anti-lock brakes, avoid using your brakes. To avoid hydroplaning - which occurs when the water in front of your tires builds up faster than your car's weight, can push it out of the way -- do not brake or turn suddenly. This could throw the vehicle into a skid. Ease your foot off the gas until the car slows and you can feel the road again.

Front end skids: Release the brake and let the front wheels roll freely to regain traction and steering control.

Rear end skids: Take foot off of accelerator and turn wheels in the direction that the rear of the vehicle is skidding, and pump brakes slightly.

Very Important points are explained
  • A well equipped emergency first aid kit with bandage, pain relief spray, antiseptic cream, anti-allergic like Avil, Aspirin, mosquito repellent cream or spray.
  • Car drivers with diabetes, blood pressure, asthma or illness for which they take prescription drugs, should keep a stock of their medicines in the car.
  • In a disaster- like situation instead of trying to reach home, first reach the nearest acquaintance/Bank branch. Try to minimize travel.
  • Lower your window panes while driving through water logged areas.
  • Carry out pre-monsoon checks of batteries, tires, electrical wiring, engine, maintenance of your car including wipers and top-up the fuel of your car during the monsoon.
  • Ensure that your car have the recommended air pressure and sufficient tread depth.
  • Install in your car mobile battery charger and ensure your FM Radio is in working condition to tune into announcements. Ensure that you have at least one CDMA cell phone in the car. It seems that CDMA phones worked more effectively than the GSM phone during an emergency.
  • Put emergency contacts in your cell phone, to enable any rescuer to inform your nearest ones at the earliest.
  • Ensure wipers are in good condition and functioning properly.
  • Keep your car’s workshop contact no.
  • Exercise extreme caution after a long dry spell. During a dry period, engine oil and grease build up on the road over time. When mixed with water from a new rainfall, the road becomes extremely slick. Continued rainfall will eventually wash away the oil, but the first few hours can be the most dangerous. Allow for more travel time during monsoon.
  • Apply brake earlier and with less force than you would normally.
  • If you must continue driving, drive slower. Leave plenty of room between you and the next vehicle. Give a truck or bus extra distance.
  • Turn on your headlights.
  • Watch out for pedestrians.
  • Defog your windows.
  • Slow down when you are driving through still water. Even small amount can cause your vehicle to lose control.
  • Be very cautious at night. It’s much harder to detect flooded areas in the dark.
  • Never drive alone in the disaster -prone areas. Avoid low lying areas.
  • At any time your Life is more precious than your car, so in case you are stuck be prepared to park and walk.
  • Obey all caution signs.
Handy things to be kept in the car :
  • Hammer: to break the glass in case of an auto-lock system failure.
  • Thick nylon rope, about 20 meters long, with a hook
  • Fully charged powerful torch.
  • A working whistle.
  • Plastic sheets and spare umbrella.
  • Keep extra tyre (stepni) ready all the times.
  • Adequate dry, non -perishable food items.
  • Adequate quantity of water.
Source :
Preparing Your Home for the Monsoon
With the onslaught of the monsoon, here are some tips to prepare your house and ensure that it is a comfortable place to live in.

"As rain drops keep falling on our heads", it is time to take measures to ensure that our houses are not only weatherproof but are also well equipped and decorated to keep us warm and dry during the monsoon.

Making it more liveable

Colours: On a cold rainy day, it is ideal that your house is decorated in bright colours to liven up your mood. Reserve blue and green colours for the summer heat. The monsoon calls for lively bright and warm colours such as yellows and oranges to brighten up your rooms. Ideally dark colours should be avoided as the skies are generally overcast and you want whatever light that enters your house to be maximised by light colours and other reflective surfaces. At the same time, avoid very light colours such as white and beige. These are colours which are very difficult to keep clean during a muddy monsoon.

Reduce the amount of greenery inside the house. In fact, with the onslaught of the monsoon, it is the ideal time to keep your plants out in the rain to get watered naturally. Plastic plants such as green ferns can be replaced with colourful ones such as plastic yellow sunflowers or orchids.
Carpet Care: Roll away that expensive Persian carpet for the monsoon. Ensure that once rolled, the carpet is covered in a plastic sheet. This will reduce the chances of moisture or accidental leakages damaging the carpet.

Invest in a bright, multi-coloured machine made acrylic washable carpet. These are light carpets and will dry faster than a Persian carpet if it gets wet. A more water-resistant option is a carpet made out of PET fibres. These are polyethylene and terephthalate fibres, made from recycled plastics. These carpets may not be as plush or soft to the feel as other synthetic fibres but they are very durable, water, static resistant, and offer extremely good value. They are also treated to be moisture and mildew resistant.

A cheaper alternative to this would be a decorative bamboo or coir mat.
Window Drapes: Monsoon season is the time to have translucent window drapes. Invest in lace curtains or curtains without lining to ensure that the daylight passing through will bathe the room in a suffused glow. These curtains will allow sufficient amount of light to enter the room and at the same time provide the privacy that you seek.

Taking Precautions

Storing important documents: Water is a menace for books and important documents. Ideally, keep important documents such as your passport, driving licence, title deeds, etc. in a waterproof, zip-lock case or box. Ensure that you have photocopies of this document similarly protected in another place in the house.

Stocking up: If the rain is pouring down for days and the streets are water-logged, you may not be able to venture out of your house for some time. Remember to stock up with enough food items and other basic necessities in advance to prepare for such circumstances. Another thing to ensure is that you have torch lights, emergency lamps, and extra fuel for generators, or a backup battery for your UPS.

Preparing for the rains: Ensure that your house can withstand the onslaught of the rain. Fill up any minute cracks with plaster of paris or white cement until more professional restoration work can be undertaken. Fill gaps between sliding windows with rubber lining to keep water from seeping through on a windy, rainy day. If you have metal surfaces that you suspect could get rusty, treat them with a waterproofing spray.

Care should be taken to prep the outside of the house as well if you are not living in a flat. Ensure that the drains and culverts around the house are not clogged. Rake leaves regularly and dispose of them to ensure that rain water will not drag them into the drainage system. Cut down branches that you feel are likely to fall in a rain. Ensure that the water drains on your roof are working well; otherwise water may stagnate on the roof and start seeping through the ceiling and walls.

Ensure that you designate an area to dry off wet umbrellas and raincoats. Somewhere close to the front entrance is ideal, as you would have guests coming in with their wet raingear. Remember to keep a good waterproof doormat in front of your house so that people can reduce the amount of mud that they might unintentionally bring in.

It’s the rainy season and the greenery catches your eye. Nature thrives everywhere…including your cupboard! As the humidity level rises your carpets, upholstery, walls, bed linen, wardrobes retain the moisture and dampness too. You can also notice mould formation in the un-aired cupboards.

Dampness In Your Cupboard? Keep any of these inside to keep the moisture at bay.
  • A saucer with cloves.
  • A box with quicklime or a block of camphor is good too and besides it will also bring a tangy aroma to the closet.
  • A jar full of salt.
  • A jar full of charcoal briquettes or a coffee tin will keep dampness away.
  • Keep away musty odors by placing perfumed bath salts in the bottom of the cupboard.
Dampness In The Room
Place a piece of camphor in the room. It will evaporate, leaving the room dry

Dampness In Your Bed?
The walls become practically damp during this season. It can be due to condensation or some leakage through the walls or ceiling.
  • Place a silver foil over the damp area inside the room.
  • If the side touching the wall is wet then the dampness comes from outside. Call for professional help. Identify the location of the leakage and water proof accordingly.
  • Improve ventilation to stop condensation inside the room, for e.g. an extractor fan on the windows would be the solution.
Canned Food is Packed at Its Peak, Close to the Source.
Prepared foods, such as soups and stews, are canned within the facilities in which they are prepared to ensure the ultimate in freshness. More than 50 varieties of soups, stews and chili are available in cans, making meal preparation easy!

Once the cans are sealed and heat processed, the food maintains its high eating quality for more than two years and is safe to eat as long as the container is not damaged in any way.
Most canned fruits and veggies contain no preservatives. They're picked and packed at the peak of ripeness, cooked quickly at high temperatures and sterilized in steel cans to keep nutrients in and impurities out.

Most canneries are located just a few miles from the field, ensuring that canned food is packed at the peak of freshness.
Canners use only top quality ingredients, which are picked, prepared and canned within hours.

Canned Food is Good for Your Health.
Almost all canned vegetables and canned fruits are fat free.
Based on epidemiological studies, canned carrots, as part of an over-healthful diet, have the potential for reducing the risk of cancer.

Canned tomatoes are higher in lycopene than their fresh counterparts. Lycopene appears to be effective in helping to reduce the risk of cancer. In fact, lycopene may be more effective when it is consumed after tomatoes are canned or cooked. Canned food only needs to be warmed through before serving because it has already been cooked in the can. By keeping the cooking juices, canned foods lose remarkably little of their nutritional value.

Many canned food products are available in low-salt and no-salt alternatives. Carotenes are antioxidants that provide protection for the body's cells. Canned apricots, carrots, peaches, pumpkin, spinach and sweet potatoes are all high in carotenes.

Canned beans of all types (black beans, red beans, butter beans, garbanzo beans, etc.) are often fat free. They're high in fiber and rich in protein, and they may be used right from the can to add flavor, color and texture to a variety of meatless meals ranging from salads to casseroles. Beans also have antioxidants - the darker the color, the more antioxidants they have!

Canned Foods are Good Sources of Many Nutrients.
Canning is one of the safest ways to preserve foods. To retain peak quality, the shelf life of canned food is at least two years, and the vitamin levels in canned food remain stable during the shelf life.

Canned poultry and fish, both protein foods, are comparable to their fresh-cooked counterparts in nutritional value. Protein is not lost during the canning process. And some varieties of canned fish tend to have higher calcium levels than their freshly cooked counterparts.

Canned food retains its nutrients for up to two years because the can is completely sealed and the food inside is cooked and stored in a vacuum.

Many canned fruits and vegetables are high in vitamin A. Canned products have comparable levels of vitamin A to their fresh or frozen counterparts. Most vitamin C is retained after being canned and remains stable during the two-year shelf life of the product. Canned asparagus, grapefruits and pineapple are significant sources of vitamin C.
Source: http://www.mealtime.org/content.aspx?id=100
LPG SBU achieves break-through in Hydrogen technology.

Inspired by the prospects of Hydrogen as a commercial fuel, BPCL’s LPG SBU worked towards making it a reality. Understanding the nuances of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology is one of the new initiatives undertaken in the project Odyssey 2010 of LPG SBU along with 11 other initiatives making it 12 initiatives that would accrue benefits to the business / corporation in the short term as well as in the long term.

Under the aegis of the stake holder for Hydrogen fuel, Mr. Sharad Sharma, GM (LPG Sales), a team comprising of the stake coordinator, Mr.Rahul Tandon, Dy. Manager (Sales),. Mr.S.Shunmugam, TM (LPG), Bangalore and Mr. Kiran Shikari, Ops.Officer (LPG), Bangalore worked on the project with guidance from Professor, Mr Ramamurthy, from RV College of Engineering, Bangalore.

In this project, a prototype has been developed wherein Hydrogen is produced by Electrolysis of water with KOH as catalyst. The energy required for Electrolysis is generated by using a small Windmill. The windmill procured and erected is of 1.5 KW, imported from China, which can work with limited wind speed of 5 m/s. and produces current. The electrolyser was developed locally by our engineers.

Production of Hydrogen with purity of 99 % is an extremely challenging task, which was over come with a lot of perseverance and hard work by the team. The final product has excellent quality, confirmed through a test in Gas Chromatograph. The Hydrogen, thus produced, was supplied to the Fuel Cell which in turn generated power for use.

Close monitoring of all the parameters with monitoring and recording system was put in place. All safety protection system has been done to take care of handling hydrogen. The power produced is of high quality without any spikes, which is a boom to the LPG Plant, which used to get supply from a rural feeder with vide fluctuations.

There is no use of energy from outside hence it is renewable and regenerative type. The Fuel Cell used in the prototype is a Proton Exchange Membrane type. The Hydrogen generated from the electrolysis is broken into Protons and Electrons which travel upto the above membrane. The PEM allows only the Protons to pass through and the Electrons complete the circuit thereby generating Power. Typically, Fossil fuels convert the Chemical Energy into Mechanical energy and then to Electrical energy hence generate Noise as well as Air Pollution, whereas in case of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology, the Chemical energy is converted straight into the Electrical Energy. The same reduces or eliminates the Noise Pollution too.

The prototype project was commissioned by C&MD Mr. Ashok Sinha, in the presence of Dir (Mktg) Mr. S.Radhakrishnan, Dir (HR) Mr. S.Mohan, ED LPG. Mr.S.K.Jain, and other dignitaries at BPCL’s Bangalore LPG Plant.