Global Warming
Deforestation: The Hidden Cause of Global Warming

Deforestation is the product of the interaction of the many environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political forces at work in any given region. The mix of these forces varies from decade to decade, and from country to country. As a consequence, generalizations are dangerous. In most cases, deforestation is a process that involves a competition amongst different land users for scarce resources, a process exacerbated by counter-productive policies and weak institutions. It creates wealth for some, causes hardships for others, and almost always brings serious consequences for the environment.

Most people assume that global warming is caused by burning oil and gas. But in fact between 25 and 30 percent of the greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere each year  1.6 billion tonnes  is caused by deforestation.

Causes Of Deforestation

The four aspects of the causes of deforestation -

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Audi TT
Audi launches sports coupe in India

Read more.....

Moong Peas And Alu Chat
Spicy Sindhi Pakoda
Onion Pakodas
Paneer Pakodas
Masala spice Chai


Bose has introduced a new speaker system that is guaranteed to be of interest to all those who enjoy movies, music and games on the computer.


Tips and Techniques for
Driving in Rain

Rain is blamed for thousands of accidents yearly.


Travelling in the monsoons? Read this


Know Your Ingredient


Technology Drives The Lubricants Industry
The key drivers in the lubricants industry are technology up-gradation and Enviromental Norms.

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The predisposing conditions create an environment where deforestation can occur. They are conditions created by society, at times intentionally and at times the consequence of human nature, that pervade all aspects of society and are not just related to land use. They are some of the most systemic, most difficult issues that frustrate human progress and sustainable development.

Without a doubt, one of the most important predisposing conditions that underlies tropical deforestation and many of the world's other problems related to achieving sustainable development is our growing population. Our numbers are currently growing at the rate of 1,000 million new individuals every decade. Most of the population increase is occurring in developing countries, those nations least equipped to absorb them. Nearly all of the expected 3.4 billion increase in our global population by the year 2050 will come from the developing countries -- 3.4 billion more people requiring food, energy, shelter, water, wood, paper, and all the other goods and services that come from the forests.

Another predisposing condition of deforestation is poverty, particularly poverty in rural areas. Although poverty is not a "cause" of deforestation, it is a condition of life that the majority of people in this world must endure. Poverty is the socioeconomic environment that limits peoples' economic options, damages health, limits the formation of rural capital, reduces income generating opportunities, and limits institutional and infrastructure development. It is an underlying condition that facilitates deforestation.

The effect of population pressures as a predisposing condition for deforestation is dependent on the influences of the carrying capacity of the land, the prevailing land use practices, the importance of forest-derived products and services to the local people, and the strength or weakness of the institutional framework in place. In most cases, a rising population pressure and a prevailing climate of rural poverty are important conditions that facilitate deforestation.


Fiscal and Development Policies - Government policies outside the forest sector have profound impacts on the forest resource, as do international policies on debt repayment, structural adjustment, and trade. Structural adjustment programs have encouraged the expansion of foreign exchange-earning export crops, which have in turn encouraged the liquidation of forest capital either by accelerating timber harvesting or by converting forests to agricultural uses.

The policies and institutional weakness of governments have significantly contributed to deforestation. Why have government policies failed so often in the past? Sometimes the policies were devised without a complete understanding of all of the issues involved and all of the potential impacts. This is often the case when decisions are made that result in deforestation because political decision-makers do not appreciate the real value of forests' goods and services compared to other land uses. Problems can also reflect the general weakness of the national forest institution and its inability to formulate and execute sound policies. In other cases, deliberate decisions are made to favour a small group of politically and economically powerful individuals at the expense of society at large. In general, government policies reflect the political will, the power structures, the democratic processes, and the level of public awareness present in the country. Even when policies are adopted with the best of intentions, they can have unforeseen negative impacts -- a consequence of the complexity of the issues being dealt with and the multiple impacts they can have. Institutions can find that rescinding a policy is a daunting task. Many countries, however, have made substantial progress in reforming their policies and legislation that contributed to deforestation in years past. Brazil, for example, has repealed its subsidies to promote cattle ranching in the Amazon, and Costa Rica is starting to account for the destruction of forest capital when doing its national economic accounts.

Land Access and Land Tenure - In most developing countries, the arable land base cannot support the growing population. First, the amount of land suitable for farming is limited. Under these circumstances, the only solution for most families is to either move to the towns and cities to look for work or to relocate to the forest frontier to clear the trees to make a new farm. Forested lands, both fertile and infertile, have been a social safety valve for land pressure. For governments, it has been politically less painful to look the other way and ignore deforestation than to deal with the difficult issues of land reform, job creation, and population control. Obviously, the issue of lack of access to arable land is one of the most compelling for the rural poor who have very few alternatives available to them.

Market Pressures - Often mentioned as causes of deforestation are the demand for forest products and the demand for other goods (mostly food) that are produced on deforested lands. Clearly, without any demand there would be no economic reason for cutting down the trees. As human population continues to grow, so does the demand for forest-derived goods.

The importance of our consumption patterns to the exploitation of forest lands cannot be denied.

Undervaluation of Natural Forests - In economic terms, there is little understanding of the value of the goods and services provided by tropical forests or of the real costs of forest management being borne by resource users. As a consequence, forests are undervalued and play a less significant role than they should in the decisions affecting resource allocations, development priorities, and land use. They are, therefore, more susceptible to being converted to other land uses which are perceived to be more beneficial.

Weak Government Institutions - Many institutional failures have been identified as contributing factors to deforestation. In most countries, forestry departments have a low status within governments relative to competing land uses, reflecting the economic power base in the countries. Typically, forestry departments are handicapped by poorly paid staff, inadequate budgets, lack of staff, and lack of staff training. As a consequence, the departments have been ineffective in successfully putting forth pro-forestry arguments to the political decision-makers and to the public at large.

Internationally, forestry has suffered from the lack of strong leadership. This has manifested itself countless times in international fora where forestry and forest-related concerns have received lower priority than other sectors by decision-makers when allocating resources.

Social Factors - Faced with political decisions about urban migration, food production, agrarian reform, employment generation, national security, economic structural adjustment, and all the other issues that demand their attention; many governments have opted to ignore deforestation. Deforestation has been a safety valve that has helped to take the socioeconomic pressure off other areas, thereby avoiding political turmoil that would inevitably come. While politically expedient, this has been a very short-sighted approach that is not in the long term interest of anyone.


Slash-and-Burn Farming - By far the most important agents of deforestation globally are the slash-and-burn farmers who live in or on the margins of all of the world's tropical forests. It is estimated that small farming families account for nearly 2/3 of all deforestation. Unlike traditional farming methods that were used in harmony with the forests' recuperative capacity, current slash-and-burn farming depletes the very soil resource upon which all agriculture and forestry depend. One of the strong commonalities of all slash-and-burn farmers is that they are among the poorest, most marginalized groups of their societies and have little or no influence on the important land use policy decisions made in their countries.

Commercial Agriculture - Commercial agriculture's role in deforestation is two-fold. First, agribusiness can indirectly result in deforestation. Commercial farms occupy the best, most fertile agricultural soils located in the valleys. As a consequence, this land is not available to the growing rural population that depends on agriculture for their subsistence. Without access to farmland in their immediate area, farming families have had to relocate to less fertile, less productive forested land. In Honduras in the 1970s, thousands of small farmers and ranchers were displaced from the north coast valleys to make way for the establishment of oil palm cooperatives. They were pushed onto the steep forested slopes and benchlands and proceeded to clear them for farms and pasture.

Second, agribusiness can be a direct cause of deforestation. Through a concession agreement, land purchase, or an informal land occupation; companies take possession of forested land with the intention of converting it to another use.

Cattle Ranching and Livestock Grazing - Traditionally, ranchers favoured the more easily managed range and pasture lands of the dry forest zones, but for the last four decades there has been intensive clearing of the moist tropical forests in both South America and Central America. Open-range grazing can be a major contributor to deforestation when herd populations exceed the carrying capacity of the range. It can also seriously degrade the composition and quality of the forest when practiced too intensively.

Mining and Petroleum Exploration - Mining and oil exploration are locally important to deforestation. Oil exploration activities, not only destroy the forests but also open them up to colonization by subsistence farmers who follow the exploration crews.

Infrastructure Development - The construction of new roads has a profound impact on the forest. Main arteries were soon followed by secondary roads that penetrate deeper into the forest, eventually producing a wide swath of deforested land on either side of the road. All roads that are constructed with the purpose of providing better access to less developed regions within a country tend to push up real estate values for non-forest uses and encourage land speculation and deforestation.

Logging roads are among the most important types of access roads that facilitate deforestation. Hydroelectric development is another important factor in deforestation. Reservoirs flood forest lands and transmission line right-of-ways are cut out of the forest to carry the energy to consumers, causing permanent losses of forest cover. Forests are also encroached upon by industrial and residential development as populations grow and cities extend outward.


For the most part, firewood collection and logging are not direct causes of deforestation, however, they do produce a change in the composition of the natural forest and can increase the risk of a subsequent transition in favour of other land uses. In some circumstances, deforestation can result when harvesting occurs under very sensitive environmental conditions or when it is very intense over a long period of time. In the case of tree plantations, replacing the natural forest with plantations results in a loss of natural forest area but it does not cause deforestation because there has been no permanent change in land use.

Fuelwood Collection and Charcoal Making - Fuelwood is the most important wood product in developing countries where it accounts for 80 per cent of all wood used. Even with predicted fuel substitution from electricity, kerosine, and propane, it is not expected that this dependence on fuelwood will change significantly before the end of the 21st century.

Logging  FAO (1993) reports that there are almost six million hectares logged annually in the tropics and that the rate of logging has doubled in the last 30 years.

Tree Plantations - Are tree plantations a cause of deforestation? No, they are not. Along with the natural forests, plantations form part of a country's forest estate. True, they are different from natural forests in their species composition and complexity, in their contribution to biological diversity, in their management regimes, and in the benefits and values they bring to society but they are still forests -- a different type of forests. Analog forest plantations can also be the first step in a long-term strategy to restore degraded lands with forests of similar species composition and structure to the original forests.


Of great concern is the rate at which deforestation is occurring.

By most estimates, the worlds forests continue to disappear at an alarming rate. Logging, fires, and land-clearing for agriculture and grazing account for most of the loss. In some places, the green Earth is turning to desert.

The statistics paint a grim picture. According to the World Resources Institute, more than 80 percent of the Earths natural forests already have been destroyed.

Among the obvious consequences of deforestation is the loss of living space. Seventy percent of the Earths land animals and plants reside in forests. But the harm doesnt stop there. Rain forests help generate rainfall in drought-prone countries elsewhere. Studies have shown that destruction of rain forests in such West African countries as Nigeria, Ghana, and Ctte dIvoire may have caused two decades of droughts in the interior of Africa, with attendant hardship and famine.

Verdant land can become desert as a result of drought, increased erosion due to land-clearing, poor farming techniques, overgrazing of livestock, and drainage of surface and underground water for crop irrigation and household and industrial use.

Deforestation may have catastrophic global effects as well. Trees are natural consumers of carbon dioxideone of the greenhouse gases whose buildup in the atmosphere contributes to global warming. Destruction of trees not only removes these carbon sinks, but tree burning and decomposition pump into the atmosphere even more carbon dioxide, along with methane, another major greenhouse gas.

Perhaps the most frightening aspect of desertification is that it tends to be what scientists call a runaway phenomenon. Once it begins in a particular area, it is almost impossible to stop, and it cannot be reversed within a human lifetime.

Precautions - The weather is something that humans cant do much about, at least not directly. But it is within the reach of people to control their own activities. Major causes of tree loss and the expansion of deserts are stripping land of its natural cover for firewood and for growing crops, poor farming techniques, over-grazing, large-scale commercial logging, and depleting groundwater.

Limiting these activities for the sake of keeping the Earth green, however, is rarely easy. Short-term emergencies caused by poverty and hunger often outweigh the longer-term demands of conservation in the political balance. In areas like Brazil and Indonesia, land is being stripped of its commercially valuable hardwood by powerful multinational business interests, often in collaboration with government officials.

Without a doubt, the cooperation of government and industry, along with efforts to mitigate the poverty that helps drive the destruction, are needed. Some advocate political activism and green consumerismbuying such products as recycled paper and boycotting others, such as hardwoods and hamburgers originating from ranches operating on land that once was rain forest.

Underlying such solutions is perhaps the most important first step toward halting the destruction of Earths forests and other green areas: heightening public awareness. Until more people know about the threats, the trees will continue to fall.


Protection and Management of Remaining Forests - One of the most direct actions to arrest deforestation is to create networks of protected areas where the forests are protected from encroachment.

  • Promote the use of agro forestry
  • Expand the area of tree plantations
  • Restore degraded lands
  • Reform government policies and institutions
  • Determine the social and economic value of forests
  • Support education and awareness-building about forest sector issues


Forests help filter pollution out of the water and protect against flooding, mudslides, and erosion.

By absorbing carbon dioxide, forests are thought to help reduce the rate of global warming.


It's that time of year again, when the mischievous rain gods create havoc with downpours and thunder showers.

The monsoons afford us some of life's simplest pleasures -- walking in the rain snuggling down into a warm bed while it's stormy and wet outdoors, and cosily munching away on hot and tasty treats indoors while it's pouring outside.

So, for all you foodies to whom that last point is particularly appealing, here are some 'Rain Recipes.



  • = Cup Grated Fresh Coconut
  • 1 Cup Sev
  • 1 Cup Moong (Green Gram Whole), Steamed
  • 1 Cup Peas, Steamed
  • 1 Cup Coriander Leaves
  • 1 Cup Potatoes, Boiled And Cubed
  • 2 Cups Beaten Curds
  • 2 Tsp Jeera (Cumin Seeds)
  • = Tsp Hing (Asafoetida)
  • 2 Green Chilly
  • 2 Onions, Chopped
  • 2 Tomatoes, Chopped
  • Tamarind Sauce
  • Salt To Taste

Method of cooking:

  • Heat Oil in a pan, add Jeera and Hing. Add Onions and Tomatoes and sauti for a minute.
  • Add Moong, Peas, Coriander leaves and Potatoes.
  • Add the chillies and mix well.
  • Remove it to a serving bowl.
  • Pour beaten Curds over it, sprinkle nylon Sev and garnish with Tamarind sauce.


  • 100gms Cabbage, Chopped Finely
  • 100gms Cauliflower, Chopped Finely
  • 200gms Onion, Chopped Finely
  • 5 Green Chillies, Chopped
  • 1 Cup Coriander Leaves, Chopped
  • 2 Big Carrots, Grated
  • 1 tsp Pomegranate Seeds, Crushed
  • 1 tsp Red Chilli Powder
  • 250gms Gram Flour
  • Oil For Deep-Frying
  • Salt To Taste


  • Make a thick batter of Gram flour by adding a little water at a time. Mix well so that no lumps are formed. Mix in all the cut Vegetables and all the spices.
  • Add more water or more flour as required and mix well. Make large oblong balls.
  • Heat Oil in a kadai and deep fry them. Remove them on a kitchen towel. Cut " thick slices out of these fried balls and fry them again till they are very crisp.
    Serve hot with Coriander chutney and Tomato Sauce.




  • Channa Dal 2 Cups
  • Onion 2 Cut Into Thin Lengthwise Strips
  • Green Chillies 3-4
  • Red Chilli Powder 1 Tsp
  • Coriander Leaves A Few
  • Curry Leaves A Few
  • Ginger A Piece
  • Salt To Taste


  • Soak channa dal for 2 hours.
  • Drain the water from the dal and add green chillies, red chilli powder, coriander leaves, curry leaves, ginger and salt to it.
  • Grind all the ingredients to a smooth paste.
  • Cut onion lengthwise. Add it to the ground mixture and mix well.
  • Heat oil in a kadai and deep fry the pakodas until golden brown.
  • Serve hot with tomato or chilli ketchup.




  • 200 Gms Paneer
  • 150 Gms Besan
  • 1/4 Tsp Ginger-Garlic Paste
  • 1/2 Tsp Chili Powder
  • A Pinch Of Cooking Soda
  • Oil For Frying
  • Few Coriander Leaves, Chopped
  • Salt To Taste


  • Cut the paneer into long strips and keep aside.
  • Mix besan, ginger-garlic paste, chili powder, coriander leaves, cooking soda, salt in a bowl and make a fine batter by using little water.
  • Now dip the paneer pieces in this batter and fry in hot oil until golden brown.
  • Serve hot with tomato sauce or mint chutney.




  • 3 - 4 Tea Spoons / 4 Teabags Of Good Tea (Darjeeling/Orange Pekoke/Lipton)
  • A Chunk Of Dry Ginger (Or Fresh Ginger )
  • 3 - 4 Cardamom Pods, Crushed
  • 3 Cloves
  • Small Piece Of Cinnamon
  • A Tsp Of Soanp
  • 1 Or 2 Whole Black Peppers (Optional)
  • Sugar To Taste
  • Milk


  • Bring 2 cups of water to boil (microwave or otherwise).
  • Add all the ingredients and boil again for about 15 seconds.
  • Add some water or stock to it and simmer the vegetables for 15 - 20 minutes, until it softens.
  • Let stand for a minute.
  • Warm milk in a pot.
  • Filter tea into cups.
  • Add milk and sugar. That's IT.

    Note: If you don't like to spend much time, mix all the spices and coarsley grind them. Boil water and add tea and a tsp of this ground spices. Rest is as above.

Companion 5 Multimedia Speaker System unveiled by BOSE India

Bose has introduced a new speaker system that is guaranteed to be of interest to all those who enjoy movies, music and games on the computer. The newly launched Bose Companion 5 multimedia speaker system just requires one simple USB connection to turn the computer into a complete entertainment system which delivers multi-channel audio content using just two visible speakers and a hideaway Acoustimass module.

Product Overview
Our premium multimedia speaker system delivers multi-channel sound that seems to surround you. It has been specifically designed for computer listening - just right for music, games and movies - and set up is simple.


TrueSpace. surround digital processing circuitry
Creates an immersive sound environment from just two visible speakers. The system is designed for sitting at the computer.

Digital 5.1 audio playback
Brings music, games, films and other 5.1-decoded material to life with much of the performance you'd expect from a five-speaker system.

USB simplicity
System links to your computer through a single USB connection. No special software, sound card upgrade, adaptors or complicated wiring needed.

Preassembled speakers/stands
Speaker arrays come fully assembled on stands for superb performance and more usable desktop space.

Compact Acoustimass. module
Delivers clean, deep low frequencies into the room. The module can be hidden almost anywhere in the listening area and allows for small, elegant speakers without sacrificing performance.

Control pod
Multi-function pod houses volume control, single-touch mute, headphone jack and connection for a second audio source such as an MP3 player.

Magnetically shielded satellite speakers
Magnetic field is essentially confined inside the speakers and will not cause monitor interference or damage to magnetic media such as audio cassette tapes.

Patented integrated signal processing
Enjoy lifelike, rich performance at almost any volume level.

Compression circuitry
Keeps your music sounding clear, not distorted, at high volume levels.

Active equalisation
Electronically tunes the frequency response, enabling outstanding audio performance.

Dual inputs
Enjoy two audio sources simultaneously  one to your computer, the other to a portable audio device.

To learn more click on the link provided :

Audi TT

Audi launches sports coupe in India

A sports car is a vehicle that combines clarity and form with progressive technology to produce the ultimate in driving pleasure. The Audi TT combines these virtues. It is sporty and harmonious, with an open or closed roof – in both the first and second generations. Indulge your passion for the extraordinary in the Audi TT.

The car is launched in India with a price tag of 49 Lakh Rs. The sports coupe shall be powered with a 3.2L V6, developing 250bhp (As Autocar reports, thats a 100 bhp more than the previous version), and 32 Kgm of torque.
The car does come with Audi’s other revolutionary technologies i.e the Quattro, a permanent four-wheel drive which distributes power efficiently between the front and rear wheels and thus increasing traction, S -tronic dual clutch, Six speed gearbox, which allows a smoother and faster gear shifts.

 Special features

Audi magnetic ride
The adaptive damper system adjusts the suspension dynamically to suit the driving situation in hand. This additionally improves handling and roadholding.

 S tronic

Sheer driving pleasure: the dual-clutch gearbox allows you to change gear without noticeably interrupting the flow of power from the engine. It can be operated at shift paddles on the steering wheel or using the gear lever 

 V6 engine

The high-revving 3.2-litre engine delivers 184 kW (250 bhp) for an outstanding performance (combined fuel consumption: 10.3 l/100 km; combined CO2 emissions: 247 g/km). With S tronic: 9.4 l/100 km; 224 g/km.

 Audi Space Frame

The body offers an innovative combination of aluminium and steel - for more dynamism, directional stability and greater safety. 


quattro permanent four-wheel drive distributes power efficiently between the front and rear wheels, thus increasing traction, propulsion and safety in all situations.

TFSI technology

More thrust, less fuel: the Audi TT 2.0 TFSI delivers 147 kW (200 bhp) from a capacity of two litres (combined fuel consumption: 7.7 l/100 km; combined CO2 emissions: 183 g/km).

The Audi TT Coupé skilfully satisfies your individual demands for dynamism, safety and comfort in its own unique way. It offers fascinating combinations of high-performance engines, innovative transmissions and sporty suspension. For your very personal driving experience.

Click Here to know more

Tips and Techniques for Driving in Rain

Rain is blamed for thousands of accidents yearly. Many of these accidents are preventable, but are caused by intrepid drivers who don't realize that fair- and foul-weather driving are fundamentally different.

While most people know to slow down in the rain, there are definitely other tips that will help keep you, and those who share the road with you, from becoming a statistic.

  • Exercise extreme caution after a long dry spell. During a dry period, engine oil and grease build up on the road over time. When mixed with water from a new rainfall, the road becomes extremely slick. Continued rainfall will eventually wash away the oil, but the first few hours can be the most dangerous.
  • Allow for more travel time. You should plan to drive at a slower pace than normal when the roads are wet. Keep in mind that traffic is likely to be moving slower as well. There's also the possibility that your preplanned route may be flooded or jammed. Whatever the case, rushing equals higher risk.
  • Brake earlier and with less force than you would normally. Not only does this increase the stopping distance between you and the car in front of you, it also lets the driver behind you know that you're slowing down. Also, be more meticulous about using turn signals, so that other drivers know your intentions, and take turns and curves with less speed than you would in dry conditions.
  • Most roads are crowned in the middle, which means that the water will run off to the sides. If possible, stay toward the middle of the road to avoid deep standing puddles.
  • Don't use cruise control. If you hydroplane, there's the chance your car could actually accelerate. Cruise control also allows drivers to be less vigilant and to take their foot away from the pedals - not a great idea when reaction time is so important.
  • If you see a large puddle up ahead, drive around it or choose a different route. It could be that it's covering a huge gaping maw into the front door of hell. Well, maybe not, but water splashing up into your car's engine compartment could damage its internal electrical systems. Also, a pothole may be hiding under the water, just waiting in ambush to damage a wheel or knock your suspension out of alignment. If you can't gauge the depth, or if it's covering up the side curb, try to avoid it.
  • Don't attempt to cross running water, you'll probably get into a lot of trouble if the force of the water is greater than the weight of your vehicle. All-wheel drive isn't going to be much help if your vehicle is being pushed sideways. Don't end up like those folks on the nightly news who had to abandon their cars to Mother Nature.
  • After you cross a puddle, tap on your brake pedal lightly to dry off some of the water on your rotors.
  • Turn on your headlights, even when there's a light sprinkle. It helps you see the road, and more importantly, it helps other motorists see you. However, don't blast your high beams in the rain or fog  it'll obscure your view further, as the light will reflect back at you off the water droplets in the air. If your car is equipped with fog lights, you may find it helpful to turn these on, as they throw a little extra light on the road while making your car easier to see.
  • Watch out for pedestrians. An ordinarily observant pedestrian may become distracted by fiddling with an umbrella or a rain slicker. Plus, raindrops deaden sound, so the usual audio clues for measuring car distances become obscured. Keep a sharp lookout for people in the road.
  • If it's raining so hard that you can't see the road or the car in front of you, pull over and wait it out.
  • Track the car ahead of you. Let the car ahead pave a clear path, so to speak, through the water.
  • Give a truck or bus extra distance. Their extra-large tires can create enough spray to block your vision completely. Avoid passing one, but if you must pass, do it as quickly as safety allows.
  • Defog your windows. Rain will quickly cause your windshield to fog up. Switch on both front and rear defrosters and make sure the air conditioning is turned on. Most cars' climate control systems will automatically engage the A/C when the windshield defrost function is selected.
  • If you start to hydroplane, don't brake suddenly or turn the wheel, or you might spin into a skid. Release the gas pedal slowly and steer straight until the car regains traction. If you must brake, tap the brake pedal (unless you have antilock brakes, in which case you can put your foot down).

Now that you know how to drive in the rain, take some precautionary measures to ensure that your vehicle is prepared to get you through a downpour.

  • Stay on top of your car's condition. Its brakes, tire pressures, tire tread depth and defroster operation should be checked regularly so that you'll be ready to deal with a deluge when the time comes.
  • Although several tire manufacturers design tires specifically for wet roads, a good set of all-season tires will do the job for most drivers.
  • Make sure that your wipers are in good condition and functioning properly. If the blades are brittle or damaged, replace them before you're caught in a downpour. Some wipers are definitely better than others, so ask your retailer for recommendations.
  • Every car should have a good emergency kit

Taking a few precautions and using wet-weather driving techniques will keep you from ending up sopping wet on the shoulder of the freeway, waiting for a tow truck. Or worse.


Travelling in the monsoons? Read this

The rains are upon us. There's no escaping an unpredictable downpour -- sooner or later you're going to be caught in one whether you like it or not, and there's no saying when. You could be on your way to work, you could be in the middle of a busy street shopping, or you could be on your way out of town for a quick weekend getaway when a deluge descends upon you.

The climate this time of year particularly inspires people to make weekend getaways, or go off on full-fledged vacations. But the monsoons can wreak havoc when it comes to your travelling plans. Whether you're making the journey by car, by train, or by plane, you've got to factor in the weather.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind if you're ever caught in a deluge while travelling:

By air

  • Before leaving for the airport, make sure to call and find out if your flight has been delayed/ cancelled. Remember, it could take you hours to reach the airport in a downpour, and it may take even longer at the airport before you're finally off.
  • Keep raingear handy. You can check in larger luggage, but make sure you carry an umbrella and/ or windcheater with you at all times.
  • Try and ensure your luggage is adequately protected from the rain -- when your baggage is unloaded from the aircraft you don't want it to get soaked.
  • Carry essentials like a mobile phone and medication, especially asprin, pain killers and such like. Cotton for your ears and nose drops if you have a cold (landing is a killer if your ears are blocked). Carry sweets to help you deal with nausea.
  • Make sure your cell phone is fully charged. Having an extra battery/ extra charge for your cell phone is very handy. Make similar provisions for your laptop, if you are carrying one.
  • Carry enough cash for a hotel stay. Also carry your credit and ATM cards.
  • If you've boarded the aircraft and take-off has been delayed due to a downpour, make sure you get out of your seat and stretch your legs at least once every hour; the same goes for your kids. Staying in your seat for long periods of time can cause deep-vein thrombosis.
  • Carry along a few comics, books or hand-held toys to keep children occupied. If you are travelling with a baby, make sure your diaper bag has enough disposable diapers, wipes and a change of clothes.
  • Take enough snacks or a sandwich and water; it's best not to rely on the airline. Food at airport restaurants/ stalls is exorbitantly priced. If many flights are delayed for a long time, they could even run out of food. Even at the best of times, a sandwich comes in handy while waiting for a flight.
  • Keep important phone numbers handy. Getting out of an airport on landing on a rainy day may require you to hire a car if taxis are in short supply.
  • When airports are home to hundreds of stranded passengers, items like wipes, toilet paper can come in handy. So can some engaging reading material or even a pack of cards. And, sometimes, even a spare set of clothes.

By car/ bus

Make sure your car is in apple-pie order if you're planning a road trip someplace -- cars tend to give trouble and sometimes stall in a downpour. Make sure the wipers are working effectively, the car battery is well-charged, the spare tyre is in good shape and there are no nooks and crannies from where water can seep into the vehicle (this can happen in an older car, if parts of the body get corroded). Also, you need to tank up -- heavy rains can cause endless traffic jams.

  • Your mobile phone should be fully charged, just in case you need to make an emergency call; driving in the monsoons can be a risky proposition. Keep a disaster management emergency number handy, just in case. Also keep flashlights, an emergency light, umbrellas and even a pair of boots handy.
  • When Mumbai was badly flooded in 2005, many suffocated to death because they were camped for many hours in air-conditioned cars with their windows shut. Carry a heavy spanner or mini-hammer to break out of a car if rain damages your electronic window system. If you are marooned in your car for several hours and have the AC on, keep your boot/ trunk lid ajar to allow air in.
  • Make sure you stock up on a few snacks -- you never know when you'll be in for a long haul.
  • If you are travelling with young children, take along snacks, a couple of hand-held video games or music CDs to keep them occupied. For babies, make sure you don't pack diapers and/ or baby food into the booth of the car. It won't do much good if you're caught in heavy rain and you have to step out to get at them.
  • Pillows, blankets, newspapers are always handy. So are vomit bags.

By train

  • Make sure to find out beforehand what travelling options you can avail of, in case the train is unexpectedly stranded halfway because of water-logging along the tracks.
  • Avoid eating the snacks sold on the train -- they are rarely hygienically prepared. Carry your own food instead. If the train gets stuck someplace mid-way and you've taken ill, it will only add to your troubles.
  • Your mobile phone should be fully charged, just in case you need to make an emergency call.
  • Carry along a few small toys to keep young children occupied. It would be good to have your baby bag well-stocked with diapers, wipes, basic medication, disposal bags, etc.
  • If you are carrying a laptop and plan to use it, make sure it is fully charged and that you are carrying an extra battery.

Last, but not least, there's no use in getting irritable and cursing the weather. Be patient, and hope for the best if caught in a downpour -- after all, there's still a great getaway to look forward to!


Know Your Ingredient

Banana is one of the oldest fruits in the world. Native to the tropics, ripe bananas are sweet in taste and are usually eaten raw - on their own or in fruit salads. The edible banana is a native of the warm moist parts of Asia. It is not only the staple food of millions of people, but is also the most important commercial fruit of the tropical areas of the world now. The fruit is delicious and seedless.

There are three main banana-producing regions in India

  • Banana is grown in almost all the regions of India i.e. South India, Western India and Eastern India i.e. from Bihar to Assam.
  • Banana is grown in almost all Southeast Asian countries like Burma, Thailand, China etc. and also in many Mediterranean and American countries.

Geographical Conditions

  • Bananas require a warm humid climate and grow well at altitude of 5,000 feet.
  • 70-80 inches of well-distributed rain throughout the year is desirable for a good crop.
  • Banana requires a rich, well-drained soil with plenty of organic matter.

Varieties Of Banana

  • Red plantain  Tambdi kel, Raj kel and Ram kel
  • Bengal guji, Cavandish, Hirni, Basrai
  • Motheli
  • Rajeli
  • Sonkela or Safed Elaichi
  • Lal Elaichi, Karanjali, Sonkel of Poona

Bananas are best eaten after other foods so that they can aid in digestion. They contain plenty of calories, vitamins A, B, C, D and E and many mineral salts such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, sulphur and potassium. Bananas contain 75% water, a number of carbohydrates, a small amount of protein and very little fat.

Culinary Uses
The different parts of banana, which are used, are fruits, leaves and stems.

  • Soft ripe banana is the first solid food given to babies.
  • Bananas in syrup, banana toast, dried bananas, baked bananas etc. are the various forms in which this valuable fruit can be eaten. Bananas, topped with brown sugar and orange juice, baked and then flambied with rum make an exotic dessert.
  • Unripe banana fruit as well as the inner core of the pseudo stem is regularly cooked as a curry in the banana growing areas.
  • This fruit is eaten both ripe and raw as a vegetable.
  • The ripe fruit, de-seeded, is often cut into longitudinal slices and dried in the sun and kept in well covered jars, to be used as a dessert.
  • Juice of the fruit is sometimes made into fermented liquor.
  • Unripe bananas are used for cooking especially in the south e.g avial and also used for making Banana chips.
  • Plantain flower or kel-ful is used as a vegetable.
  • Juice of the inner part of the stem, which is felled as soon as the fruit is cut, is used in preparing wafer, biscuits.

Medicinal Uses

  • Bananas are a flesh building fruit and quench thirst.
  • Bananas help build bones and is very good for jaundice because of their iron content.
  • One banana, thoroughly mashed, is a good remedy for dysentery in children.
  • Bananas cure all kinds of weakness and they especially help cure spermatorre.

Young tender leaves of banana tree form a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered skin.

General Tips

  • When cutting ripe bananas, add a little lemon juice to prevent it from turning black because of oxidation.
The key drivers in the lubricants industry are technology up-gradation and Enviromental Norms. The technological advances in design and manufacturing in automobile and other industries place an enormous demand on the lubricant technology. It is imperative that the lubricant technology complements the vehicle & equipment / machinery technology so that the end user can realize the benefits of technological advancements. Further the stringent emission norms and enhanced environmental concerns triggered a cascading demand on lubricants, especially, in the automotive sector.
We at Bharat Petroleum have been developing new lubricants and continuously upgrading our existing products to meet these challenges. It has been our endeavour to provide the customer with high performance lubricants that can extend both the oil and the vehicle/ equipment life and increase productivity through better availability of machine/ equipment, thereby reducing operating costs. The MAK Brand of lubricants epitomizes a range of high performance lubricants meeting latest International and National specifications.
Petroleum Lubricating Oils are made from heavier portion of Crude Oil that remains after removal of the lighter fractions. Till recently Lubricant manufacturing companies have been using API GROUP I Base Oil. In Group I processing, older conventional technology is adopted where in base oils are produced by Solvent Refining Technology (solvent extraction and solvent Dewaxing). More modern base oils using hydro processing technology fall into the API Group II & III Classification which are vast improvement over Group I base oils.
We at Bharat Petroleum have successfully set up our own lube base oil refinery, at Mumbai, which has come on stream in June 2006. This has made available to us one of the best quality MAKBase oils in the world exceeding the requirement of API Group II (rated as Group II plus). These base oils are manufactured using an all hydro processing technology route i.e. hydro cracking  hydro iso-dewaxing  hydro finishing. MAKBase typically has less than 1% aromatics and almost negligible amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. The virtual absence of heteroatom containing compounds coupled with an inherently low aromatic content in base oil not only imparts superior performance characteristics but also makes it more eco-friendly as compared to conventional Group I base oils.
The features of MAKBase oil is as follows :
  • MAKBase is Colourless, Odourless, Non-Toxic and Stable
  • MAKBase has high viscosity index (greater than 110)
  • MAKBase has less Aromatic content and Sulphur
  • MAKBase has excellent Low temperature properties
  • MAKBase has low Volatility
  • MAKBase has excellent Demulsibility and Anti-Foaming Characteristics
As base oils are the fundamental building blocks of lubes, access to such superior quality base oils will further enhance the quality of Lubricating oils produced by us offering the following advantages:
Longer oil life through improved oxidation stability
MAKBase oils contain very less Aromatic content thus providing excellent Oxidation Stability which minimizes viscosity increase and reduced deposits enabling longer lubricant life.
Grades blended with MAKBase due their inherent superior oxidation stability provide scope for extending oil service life.
Reduced Oil Consumption
The higher Viscosity Index and sharp distillation cuts of MAKBase oil helps make them less volatile, thus providing
- Engine oils with lower oil consumption
- Industrial oils and power transmission fluids that have less fluid loss
- Lubricants that show less thickening
Reduced Emissions and Improved Catalyst Life
MAKBase oils with its very low sulphur content provides
- Better protection to emission control devices such as catalytic converters and after treatment devices, which would help in reducing emissions.
Better Wear Protection and Longer Equipment Life
MAKBase oils have more stable viscosity at extreme temperatures, thus providing lubricants that thickens less at cold temperatures and thin less at higher temperatures. It also has excellent low temperature properties. Thus providing
- Enhanced wear protection and equipment life.
- Better low temperature fluidity and pumpability.
Protection against rusting and corrosion
MAKBase oils have better demulsibility resulting in faster water separation and better protection against corrosion which is a very critical property for turbine oils and hydraulic oils.
Energy Savings
With its lower volatility and very high Viscosity Index, thinner oils can be used, thus resulting in substantial fuel and energy savings in both automotive and industrial applications.
Excellent Aesthetics
Due to the colourless nature of MAK Base oil, some industrial grades like MAK Hydrol, MAK Metamol etc. would have far lighter and brighter colour (light yellow) compared to the same product (brown colour) manufactured with Group I base oil. The customer is advised to take note of this significant aspect while receiving the product from our blending plants/ depot.
Our MAK product range covers all the automotive & industrial segments and application areas. To facilitate the process of innovation and development, we have a state-of-the-art R&D Centre at Mumbai which helps to deliver to our customers the latest generation products. Our technical competence is borne by the fact that we have been the trendsetters in various product segments such as 2T, 4T, Diesel Engine Oil, Transmission Oils, Compressor Oils, Hydraulic Oils and Metal Working Fluids etc. We have well defined Quality Systems and this is backed with an extensive Quality Control network with comprehensive lube testing labs at the 4 metros and 18 basic lube testing labs across the country. Both our lube blending plants are ISO 9001-2000 accredited.