The Great Depression was the biggest crisis ever experienced by the world economy.
It hit almost every country...
The 12-cylinder A8 sets the highest standards for dynamism in the luxury car class and is a synonym for...

  For more effective dishwashing, add a few tablespoons of vinegar along with the dishwashing detergent...

  Fixing bad breath depends on what's causing it. In 80 to 90 percent of cases....

Here is a tonic for your third eye.
The mango is considered the
king of fruits in Ayurveda.

Fuji's 3D Camera System
FUJIFILM Corporation today announces a radical departure from current imaging...

  You can’t take the pain out of paying for gas, but you can make it less painful to pump it...


  Viscosity Grade Paving Bitumen
India has embarked upon massive and unprecedented road construction & improvement programmes involving huge investments.

Developed by E Vision Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
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The Great Depression was the biggest crisis ever experienced by the world economy. It hit almost every country. The highly developed economies of Western Europe and the United States: the less developed ones like Canada and, Australia, Japan and Argentina: and the underdeveloped countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa, just as soon as they became involved in the world market.

Many countries experienced the catastrophic breakdown of their national economies, and only a few came away without major damage. The Depression manifested itself in events which had no obvious relevance for many people, such as the complete deterioration of stock prices, the dissolution of the international currency system or the fall of world prices.

Statistics cannot convey the extent of the effects of the Depression. In 1932, 30 million people were unemployed, while millions more suffered from short hours and extremely low wages. The consequences were hunger, higher mortality rate apathy and hopelessness, as well as an increase in crime.

The Great Depression hit America unprepared. At the end of the 1920s people in developing nation had no idea of what was coming. Even leading industrialists and businessmen were full of optimism. In the New York Times of October 29th 1928, Alfred Sloan, president of General Motors, declared his “conviction that our general economic and industrial situation is thoroughly sound”.

The fact, the American economy had shown signs of weakness even before 1929. Investment opportunities were no longer unlimited, as demand fell off during the second half of the 1920’s especially for housing and durable consumer goods.

In agriculture, at this time still an important factor in the national economy, real incomes had stopped growing: falling prices in the world market posed big problems for American farmers too.

The buoyant bull market at the New York Stock Exchange in 1928 had produced record speculation, eventually culminating in the Crash of 1929, which not only reinforced the recession but finally destroyed confidence in the expansion of the 20’s. Even though New York capital markets were brought back under control relatively fast, the slide into the Depression had started.

What is Economic Recession?
In economics, the term recession is generally used to describe a situation in which a country's GDP, or gross domestic product, sustains a negative growth factor for at least 2 consecutive quarters.  It is generally said so because recession can be defined differently by different economists.  Just as there is an agency to define the measure of inflation; the official agency in charge of declaring that the economy is in a state of recession is the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).  NBER's definition of recession is a bit vaguer than the standard one that was described above. They define recession as a "significant decline in economic activity lasting more than a few months".  For this reason, the official designation of recession may not come until after we are in a recession for six months or even longer.

Some economists also suggest that a recession occurs when the natural growth rate in GDP is less than the average of 2%.

Typically, a normal economic recession lasts for approximately 1 year.

Global recessions
There is no commonly accepted definition of a global recession, International Monetary Fund (IMF) regards periods when global growth is less than 3% to be global recessions. The IMF estimates that global recessions seem to occur over a cycle lasting between 8 and 10 years. During what the IMF terms the past three global recessions of the last three decades, global per capita output growth was zero or negative.

Economists at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) state that a global recession would take a slowdown in global growth to three percent or less. By this measure, three periods since 1985 qualify: 1990-1993, 1998 and 2001-2002.

Causes of Recession
This is another staunchly debated topic; but the general consensus is that a recession is primarily caused by the actions taken to control the money supply in the economy.  The Federal Reserve is responsible for maintaining an ideal balance between money supply, interest rates, and inflation.  When the Fed loses balance in this equation, the economy can spiral out of control, forcing it to correct itself.  This is precisely what we have seen in 2007, where the Feds monetary policy of injecting tremendous amounts of money supply into the money market has kept interest rates lower while inflation continued to rise.  This coupled with relaxed policies in lending practices made it easy to borrow money; the economic activity became unsustainable resulting in the economy coming to a near halt.   

It is also said that recession can be caused by factors that stunt short term growth in the economy, such as spiking oil prices or war.  However, these are mostly short term in nature and tend to correct themselves in a quicker manner than the full blown recessions that have occurred in the past.

Effects of a Recession
An economic recession can usually be spotted before it happens.  There is a tendency to see the economic landscape changing in quarters preceding the actual onset.  While the growth in GDP will still be present, it will show signs of sputtering and you will see higher levels of unemployment, decline in housing prices, decline in the stock market, and business expansion plans being put on hold. 

When the economy sees extended periods of economic recession, the economy can be referred to as being in an economic depression.

What is this subprime effect?
If you are the kind who follows the business press and news channels very closely, then chances are that, in the last one week, you would have heard stock market experts blaming US subprime defaults for the fall in the Indian markets.

Welcome to the world of globalisation, where when America sneezes, India catches cold. But what on earth is this subprime crisis?

It all starts with an entrepreneur who finds a demand-supply gap between people who want to buy a house and people who have the money to lend.

These people who want to buy a house do not have a good credit rating, i.e., their probability of defaulting on the loan repayment is very high.

So, if anybody wants to lend money to them, it will have to be at a significantly higher interest rate (sub-prime rates is the jargon for it). This is because the entrepreneur lending the money is taking a higher risk, and hence, needs to be compensated through higher returns.

The entrepreneur takes a loan from a bank/ investment bank at low interest rate (as he has a good credit rating, he can raise money at competitive rates) and lends out that money to many people at a higher interest rate.

This ensures that he gets a higher return than what he pays on the loan. At the same time, by giving out loans to many people, he has ensured that a few defaults on repayments do not have a huge impact.  

How to Survive a Recession
These are some of the effects of recessions and how to deal with recession.

  • More difficult To Borrow. In a recession banks are less willing to lend. This is particularly a problem at the moment, because of the concurrent credit crises which is reducing the availability of loans.
    • Solution: Avoid taking on any unnecessary debts. The debts you have try to reduce and consolidate into a lower interest rates bearing account.
    • On the positive side, in a recession, interest rates are likely to be lower, meaning lower interest payments for mortgage holders.
  • Unemployment. This is the main concern over a recession. If output does fall, there is likely to be a fall in demand for labour. This problem is often concentrated in those sectors most affected by the recession. For example, in the current climate, jobs related to finance and the housing market are more at risk than say the manufacturing sector.
    • Solution: If you fear unemployment, start thinking what you might do as an alternative. Is it viable to consider working on a second income, such as online business.
    • Don't panic. Firstly, the unemployment may not occur; there is nothing to be gained by worrying over what we have no control other.
    • If are made unemployed, the best solution is to be flexible in looking for work. Consider new avenues and skills that you could learn. Also recessions will be short lived; a period of temporary unemployment does not have to become permanent.
  • Falling profitability of Business. If you are a small business owner the effects of a recession can be keenly felt. Lower profits could even threaten the survival of the business.
    • Solution: Look for ways to minimize costs without compromising the business. There are always ways to cut costs and increase inefficiency. Some economists even go so far as to say that recessions are a good thing because they force the economy to become more efficient.
    • If your business is particularly affected by the downturn, look to see whether you can diversify to reflect the changing economic environment. For example, if you specialise in selling luxury goods with a high margin try including some new product lines which appeal to people's desire for frugality.
    • A fall in profits is likely to be cyclical. Therefore try to plan a financial plan to borrow at a low cost for the difficult years.
  • Falling Stock Market
    • In a recession, stock markets are likely to fall as lower profits reduce dividend payments. Try to diversify your investment portfolio. In a recession, commodities such as gold often do well. Even in a recession, there can be good investment opportunities.
    • Also bear in mind that stock markets can often be forward looking. For example, stock markets have fallen sharply since the start of the year in anticipation of a recession. When a recession comes, stock markets often don't fall any more.
  • Consumer Confidence
  • Often the worst aspect of a recession is the affect on consumer confidence and people's fear about the future. Bear in mind, the media often exaggerate the extent of a downturn in the economy. The media like to highlight sensationalist stories. However, it is often not as bad as it is made out to be. Keep a calm and detached attitude and just make the best of the current situation.

  • Any Benefits of a recession?
    • Lower interest rates. Good for borrowers
    • Lower inflation rates. Good for savers
    • Sometimes difficult times can force us to reevaluate our financial situation. It can make us look for new business avenues and new ways to cut costs and spending. Although it may be temporarily unpleasant, the important thing is not to panic but try to make the best of any situation we find ourselves in.

Source :

Honeydew Lime Cooler

The flavors of sweet honeydew, tart lime, and juicy red grapes combine in this smooth summer drink.

A refreshing change of pace from sodas and iced tea! Citrus fruits are rich in vitamin C and other healthful nutrients such as glutathione.

  • 1 small musk melon 
  • ½ cup seedless red grapes 
  • ½ cup freshly squeezed lime juice
  • ½ cup honey 
  • 2 cups sparkling water
  • Cut melon in half, scoop out seeds, peel, and cut into 1-inch cubes. Wash grapes well and remove stems. Freeze melon and grapes for one hour.
  • Combine frozen melon and grapes with lime juice and honey in a blender. Puree until smooth, adding water as needed. Serve immediately.
Peachy Iced Green Tea Recipe  
Drinking green tea may help you lose weight. According to clinical studies conducted by Dr. Abdul Dulloo, of the University of Geneva in Switzerland, green tea raises metabolic rates and speeds up fat oxidation. Green tea is also a great immune-enhancing health-booster and anti-cancer agent, with flavonoids and polyphenols thought to inhibit tumor formation.

So here is our easy-to-make recipe for green tea, but this one tastes so good you’ll never guess how good it is for you! A great, healthy thirst-quencher for hot summer days.
  • 6 green tea teabags
  • 6 cups cold water
  • 2 ripe peaches, pitted and sliced
    (Makes 6 servings)
  • Place teabags in a large teapot or pitcher.
  • Put sliced peaches in a saucepan, add cold water, and bring to a brisk boil, then pour water and peaches over teabags.
  • Steep for 6 minutes, then add sweetener (maple syrup, honey or Succanat are recommended). Allow tea to cool, then refrigerate until thoroughly chilled.
  • Include a few peach slices in each glass and serve with a spoon, garnished with a sprig of mint, if required.
Watermelon Mint Smoothie Recipe

Watermelon is a totally good-for-you food: The sweet, juicy red melon is high in cancer-fighting lycopene and vitamins. IT has zero fat.

Watermelon Mint Smoothie makes a great breakfast.

Serves 1 - 2

  • 1 to 2 cups seedless watermelon chunks
  • 1 tablespoons honey
  • 1 tablespoon fresh mint leaves, or to taste
  • 1 cup lemon yogurt
  • Dash cinnamon
  • Puree watermelon, honey, and mint in a blender or food processor quickly–do not over blend. Place in the yogurt and cinnamon just until smooth.
Mystic Mango Smoothie
Here is a tonic for your third eye. The mango is considered the king of fruits. It is rich in bioflavonoid, antioxidants, potassium, fiber, and vitamin C. This light fruit shake activates the vibration of light in the upper chakras; combined with the fanciful influence of blackberries, you will attain a sublime mind.

Here’s the recipe to light up your third eye with Mystic Mango Smoothie:
  • 3/4 cup fresh (preferably) or frozen blackberries
  • 1 mango, pitted and chopped 
  • 1/4 to 1/2 cup purified water
  • 1 tablespoon flaxseed oil
  • 1 small vial royal jelly (.33 ounces or 1 tablespoon)

Bonus supper ingredients: 1 tablespoon maca powder or 1 teaspoon ashwanga, both for a pituitary and pineal gland boost, hormonal support, and stress buffers

Add royal jelly, which powers up the pineal and pituitary glands, and your center of light will be buzzing with a delectable whirl of vibrant antioxidants and universal life force.
This one is great for kids too, but don’t add royal jelly or bonus ingredients
Berry Banana Smoothie Recipe
This is the perfect smoothie recipe, rich in immune-enhancing, beauty-promoting vitamins, calcium, potassium, and omega-3. And it even tastes yummy!

Serves 1
  • 1 ripe banana
  • ¾ cup milk or soy milk
  • 1/2 cup ripe strawberries, hulled and halved
  • ¼ cup yogurt (if you use vanilla-flavored yogurt, omit the vanilla extract)
  • 1 teaspoon honey
  • 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • 1 tablespoon chopped walnuts or flax seeds
  • Whiz all ingredients except walnuts and flax seeds in a blender.
  • Pour into glass and top with walnuts or flax seeds.
  • Whip up a batch in the blender for a quick taste treat that’s healthy, too. Perfect for breakfast (as after-workout snack, or for energy boost).
Recipe taken from :
Mango Ice Cream
  • 2 cups of Fresh mango
  • 1 cup of Sugar
  • 2 cups of Cream
  • 2 cups of Milk
  • 1 teaspoon of Almond extract
  • 1/4 teaspoon of Salt

  • Cut the mango fruit into bite sized pieces.
  • Mix the mango with 1/2 cup of the sugar.
  • Cover with a lid and store in the fridge overnight.
  • Drain the mango but save the syrup to be used later.
  • Blend the mango pieces with a food processor.
  • Add to the reserved sugar syrup.
  • Combine the cream and milk in a saucepan and stir over medium heat until bubbles appear.
  • Stir for another 1 minute before removing to be cooled.
  • Mix the remaining 1/2 cup of sugar, the almond extract and the salt.
  • Pour the cooled milk/cream mixture into the bowl with the sugar and other ingredients and stir.
  • Use a beater to beat until the liquid is frothy.
  • Cover with a lid and place in the freezer.
  • After it is partially frozen, take it back out and blend again with the mixer.
  • Re Freeze.
  • Scoop them out when serving.
Recipe taken from :By Jackie Tan -
Fuji's 3D Camera System

FUJIFILM Corporation today announces a radical departure from current imaging systems with the development of a completely new, real image system (3D digital camera, 3D digital photo frame, 3D print) that marks a complete break from previous attempts to introduce this technology.

Fujifilm is determined to push those boundaries yet further, to produce devices which offer new ways to capture and process images, and to expand consumer enjoyment of photography in ways that had hitherto only been imagined.

The Technology behind the 3D Camera

The 3D camera depends heavily on a newly developed chip called the "RP (Real Photo) Processor 3D", which synchronizes the data passed to it by both CCD sensors, and instantaneously blends the information into a single high quality image, for both stills and movies.
"Built-in 3D auto" determines optimal shooting conditions from both sensors. 3D auto means that as soon as the shutter is depressed, key metrics for the image, such as focus, zoom range, exposure, etc. are synchronized. The camera is also fitted with built-in sync control, giving 0.001-second precision for shutter control and movie synchronization.
The processor uses the very latest technologies of high sensitivity and high resolution as the newest 2D processors.

Viewing with the FinePix Real 3D System
A new 8.4-inch, "FinePix Real 3D Photo Frame" with over 920,000 pixels has also been developed. The LCDmonitor on the camera and the stand alone display panel share similar technologies which solve the problem of screen flickering and image ghosting, common problems with earlier developments, giving crisp, high resolution viewing of images in glorious 3D or standard 2D.
A newly developed "light direction control module" in the back of the LCD controls light to right eye and left eye direction.
This light direction control system enables easy and high quality 3D viewing without special 3D glasses.

Printing with the FinePix Real 3D System

Using know-how gained through years of development of Frontier, Fujifilm has developed a 3D printing system using a fine pitch lenticular sheet giving high-precision, and fine quality multiple viewpoint 3D like never before.

Shooting with FinePix Real 3D System (FUTURE POSSIBILITIES)
FinePix Real 3D System is also paving the way for new possibilities in 2D photo enjoyment.
The heart of the system is a new concept camera fitted with dual lenses. Each lens can capture stills or movies from a slightly different position, producing the basis of the 3D image.
By combining new dual lens system, new functions can be achieved, for example, image quality improvement function (Simultaneous Dual-Image Shooting: Multi-Expression). For users, this is just one possibility from a dual lens camera. Other fascinating possibilities include:

Imagine the Future. More Than You Imagined
New dimensions in imaging mean a wealth of new possibilities which will revolutionize the way consumers enjoy imaging. Fujifilm is determined to leverage its considerable technical resources to explore 3D in everyway possible, to produce products that expand the imaging market, while at the same time, give future generations of consumers an even richer imaging experience than was conceived at the dawn of the digital age.

Source :
Sporty and Exclusive
12-cylinder Audi A8

Elegance and power
The 12-cylinder A8 sets the highest standards for dynamism in the luxury car class and is a synonym for elegance and power at the highest level. The top-of-the-range model combines those characteristics in a supremely impressive and fascinating manner. Especially in the long-wheelbase version as the A8 L W12 quattro. (Fuel consumption, combined: 13.9 l/100 km; CO2 emissions, combined: 334 g/km).

Exterior View

Powerful impact
Clear and precise, powerful and expressive. The 12-cylinder Audi A8 presents itself fully in keeping with its standing. The top-of-the-range Audi model visually embodies many of the attributes associated with high repute, success and richness of experience, whether at work or in private life. (Fuel consumption, combined: 13.8-14.8 l/100 km; CO2 emissions, combined: 331-355 g/km)


Special features

Single-frame grille
The remarkably striking single-frame radiator grille combines the upper and lower grille sections to form a trapezoidal unit packed with sporting stylishness and self-confident presence.

Striking tailpipe design
The 12-cylinder A8 is emphatically dynamic in appearance: from the single-frame radiator grille to the particularly striking tailpipe design.

Wheels and tyres
Demonstrate your individuality with exclusive alloy wheels. 17 to 20-inch wheels of various designs are available for the Audi A8.


A8 long-wheel base
Luxury lends itself to extension: the wheel-base of the A8 L W12 quattro is 130 mm longer than on the standard A8, benefiting the rear passengers in particular, who enjoy first-class comfort.

Interior View

Dynamic & Luxurious

Point of focus: the driver
The interior of the 12-cylinder A8 combines sportiness, luxury and ergonomic design on all seats. With intuitive switchgear and controls, the 12-cylinder A8 has one point of focus: the driver. Experience pure dynamism, quality and perfect functionality in the sportiest luxury-class saloon (fuel consumption, combined: 13.8-14.8 l/100 km; CO2 emissions, combined: 331-355 g/km).

Special features

Leather aesthetics
your wishes count: the leather trims with coloured piping, and seams are an integral element of the standard specification of the Audi A8 L W12 and a symbol of its exclusive status.

Air-conditioned seats
The seats offer optimum ergonomic design. You can set your preferred seat position at the press of a button. The air conditioning built into the seat provides even more additional comfort.

Rear seat comfort
A true pleasure wherever you sit: the rear offers generous amounts of space and a high degree of convenience. As a result, all passengers are carried in high comfort and remain perfectly relaxed.

Enhancing the extensive range of standard features, optional extras from Audi exclusive offer ultra-luxurious ideas for customizing your in-car experience.

Source :


Car and Driving Tips

Easy open. You can’t take the pain out of paying for gas, but you can make it less painful to pump it. Keep a disk-shaped, rubber jar opener in the car, then use it to twist off the gas cap.  

Get a grip. If you have trouble gripping a steering wheel or gear shift, use golf, baseball or weight-lifting gloves when you drive. 

Bag it. One AT reader recommends placing a large trash bag in the car seat. Getting in and out is easier because the bag can be disposed off. 

Slide right in.  It’s easier to move around in cars with vinyl or leather upholstery. If you have a car with cloth seats, consider putting in a vinyl seat covering. 

Key solution. If you have trouble turning your car key, try building it up with electrical tape or trade in your keys for a keyless fob and starter that remotely unlocks your car and starts the engine.  


Car Security Tips

  • Make sure your car is locked and your windows closed.

    This sounds ridiculously obvious but make sure you secure your car carefully wherever you have parked. Research shows
    loads of people leave their doors unlocked and/or their windows open at large proportion. Make sure your windows are wound all the way up. Even if you leave a small gap a thief can easily force it down to either access the door lock or break the window.
  • Check all your entry points are secure – are all the doors locked, the trunk locked and the sunroof locked(if any) If not a thief will be quick to take advantage of the opportunity.
  • Keep your keys safe – even when you are at home.  Don’t leave them in the car, in your handbag, or sitting on an entrance table or bench in the house. Secure them in a drawer or somewhere safe that is out of sight.

    Today with factory and after market alarms getting smarter it is becoming harder for a thief to quickly and easily hotwire your car. That has led to a surge in home break-ins purely so thieves can steal the car keys. Then they simply come back later and drive off with the car.
  • So, while you’re at home keep your keys safe.

Source :


Cleaning Tips - Kitchen

  • For more effective dishwashing, add a few tablespoons of vinegar along with the dishwashing detergent when washing
    dishes. The vinegar cuts the grease and leaves dishes sparkling.
  • To clean up spills in your oven, sprinkle the spills immediately with salt. When the oven has cooled, brush away the burnt-on food with a damp sponge.
  • To disinfect smelly sponges, wash sponge thoroughly, then microwave it while it is wet, for a short period. When you see steam from the sponge, the bacteria in the sponge will be dead. Remove carefully, it will be hot! Wash the sponge thoroughly before use. **Make sure the sponge has no metal components! **
  • To remove hard-water and lime build-up in a teapot or kettle, pour in two cups of vinegar and bring to a boil. Let simmer for about 10 minutes, then rinse well.
  • To remove mineral deposits in a tea pot or burnt spots on a coffee pot, put some ice cubes, cut-up lemon, and salt with a tad water and swish around and let sit overnight.
  • To whiten an old stained sink, pour a half cup of salt in it and then scrub it with a lemon. Let it stand for a few minutes and rinse.
  • To remove skid marks on linoleum rub the spot with toothpaste before washing the floor.
  • To keep your plastic containers from getting stained from tomato based foods, rub the inside with vegetable oil before placing the food in the container.
  • Kitchen surfaces: Mix in spray bottle, 1 part ammonia to 3 parts water. Or try diluted bleach solution in a spray bottle. It will remove stains and disinfect.
  • Removing kitchen and food odors: Soak pure vanilla on a cotton ball and place in a saucer. Put the saucer in the
    car or refrigerator to remove odors. Keep cotton ball out of reach of children as it contains some alcohol.
  • Odor producing mold and bacteria in garbage cans: sprinkle 1/2 cup Borax in the bottom of the garbage can.
  • Cleaning coffee maker: Pour straight vinegar into it as if you are making the coffee, no filter is need. Turn coffee maker on as if you were making a pot of coffee. Repeat this with a new batch of vinegar until it runs clear of calcium deposits.
Source :
6 Tips to Cure Bad Breath

Fixing bad breath depends on what's causing it. In 80 to 90 percent of cases, it's due to something in the mouth. Most often, it's nothing more serious than a dirty mouth. Plaque, the nearly invisible film of bacteria that's constantly forming in mouth, is often responsible for bad breath. Other dental culprits include cavities and gum disease.
Occasionally, bad breath is due to something in the lungs or gastrointestinal tract or to a systemic (body wide) infection. However, eating a garlicky meal is one of the most common causes. The strong odors of foods such as garlic, onions and alcohol are carried through the bloodstream and exhaled by the lungs. Another big loser, when it comes to bad breath is tobacco.

In addition, some health problems, such as sinus infections or diabetes (which may give the breath a chemical smell), can cause bad breath.

1. Keep Your Mouth Clean

Keep your mouth clean. That means a thorough brushing twice a day and flossing regularly. Food and bacteria trapped between teeth and at the gum line can only be removed with floss. If they're left to linger, bad breath is imminent.

2. Clean Your Tongue
Clean your tongue. Bacteria left on your tongue can contribute to less-than-fresh breath. Be sure to brush your tongue after you brush your teeth.

3. Wet Your Whistle
A dry mouth can quickly cause bad breath. Saliva helps clean your mouth; it has a natural antibacterial action, and it washes away food particles. That awful morning breath is the result of reduced saliva flow at night.

4. Rinse
Rinse your mouth with plain water after eating. Swishing the water around may help to remove some of the food particles left in the mouth after a meal and prevent bad breath from setting in.

5. Munch on Parsley
Munching on parsley or spearmint won't cure bad breath, but the scent of the herb itself can help to cover up offending oral odor temporarily.

6. Eat to Smell Sweet
Foods that help fight plaque may also help fight bad breath. Opt for celery, carrots, peanuts or a bit of low-fat cheese if you want something to snack on.

While all of these tips will help your breath smell better, figuring out the cause of bad breath is the best way to lick it for the long term. 



India has embarked upon massive and unprecedented road construction & improvement programmes involving huge investments.

It has also to maintain a vast road network of over 33 lakh kilometers. The durability of the road surface depends largely on the type and quality of bitumen used and quality control exercised in the production, transportation, mixing, laying & compaction.

Traditionally, penetration grade bitumen has been used in bituminous mix. The pavement made by using penetration grade bitumen is known to exhibit rutting at higher temperatures, cracking at lower temperatures and raveling due to fatigue. Thus, the life of bituminous pavement varied from 3-4 years requiring frequent repairs and renewals. To achieve durable pavements, use of modified bitumen was introduced in late nineties. The cost of modified bitumen is about 10 to 20 per cent higher than the cost of bitumen, furthermore, the construction of pavement with modified bitumen requires higher level of care & quality control during the entire process right from production of modified bitumen to laying and compaction. The latest introduction is “Viscosity grade paving bitumen” which is designed to take care of pavement distress at lowest temperature (responsible for cracking) and at maximum service temperature (responsible for rutting). The BIS has issued IS 73:2006 specification for Viscosity grade paving bitumen which supersedes the earlier specification IS 73:1992 for Penetration grade paving bitumen. In view of the importance of bitumen in road construction and maintenance, it is necessary that appropriate grade of bitumen most suited for our environment are used and adequate quality control is exercised at each stage.

Bitumen Classifications, Specifications, Quality Assurance & Applications
Paving grade bitumen is categorized according to its absolute viscosity (degree of fluidity). The higher the grade, the stiffer the bitumen. In Viscosity grade, viscosity tests are conducted at 60 °C and 135 °C, which represent the temperature of road surface during summer (hot climate, similar to northern parts of India) and mixing temperature respectively. The penetration at 25 °C, which is annual average pavement temperature, is also retained.

As per IS 73:2006 specification, Bitumen is classified into following four types, based on Absolute viscosity:

VG-10 is widely used in spraying applications such as surface dressing and paving in very cold climate in lieu of old 80/100 penetration grade. It is also used to manufacture bitumen emulsion and modified bitumen products.

VG-20 can be used for paving in cold climatic & high altitude regions, for eg. Northern regions

VG-30 is primarily used to construct extra heavy duty bitumen pavements that need to endure substantial traffic loads. It can be used in most part of India in lieu of old 60/70 penetration grade.

VG-40 is used in highly stressed areas such as those in intersections, near toll booths and truck parking lots in lieu of old 30/40 penetration grade. Due to its higher viscosity, stiffer bitumen mixes can be produced to improve resistance to shoving and other problems associated with higher temperature and heavy traffic loads.

All the above products manufactured from our Mumbai & Kochi Refineries comply with the requirements of IS 73:2006 Specification for “Viscosity grade paving bitumen”.

BPCL is recognized for its proven track record of consistently delivering high quality products. Our products perform under the most diverse and demanding road conditions in India. This is attributable to a combination of ‘state of the art’ manufacturing technology, comprehensive quality assurance programs and operational efficiency - all supported by our highly skilled and experienced staff. We have excellent research centre which focuses on R&D, as well as providing technical expertise. Our team of technical specialists is dedicated to ensure our products are tested thoroughly at every stage-from the selection of crude oil at the start of the production processes, right through delivery.

Health and Safety
To ensure hot bitumen is used in safe and efficient manner the following safety precautions shall be followed.

  • Wear suitable personal protective equipment (PPE) at all times: Full skin protection is required to avoid accidental burns when transferring or handling hot bitumen
  • Always prevent contact between water and hot bitumen by checking the contents pf the previous load before loading bituminous products into tanker and by following procedures to avoid violent boil-over of tanks
  • Minimize bitumen fumes by heating bitumen and bituminous mixes to the recommended temperatures.
  • Minimize the use of diesel when cleaning equipment as this contributes to the bitumen fume.

For further details, please contact us:
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd
Industrial & Commercial Dept.
Bharat Bhavan, 4 & 6, Currimbhoy Road,
Ballard Estate, Mumbai – 400 001
Tel: 022 22714000, 22713000

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